Glossary of Terms
- A -
AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
ABRASION - A test for determination of resistance of aggregate to abrasion conducted as per AASHTO Test Procedure T 96 - Los Angeles Abrasion (LA).
ABSORPTION - The soaking up of moisture (water) by aggregate.
ACCEPTANCE SAMPLE - Sample taken to determine whether the quality of materials incorporated into or proposed for incorporation into the work conforms to specified requirements.
ADMIXTURE - A substance added to concrete or Asphalt concrete mixtures which affects the properties or performance of the material favorably.
AGGREGATE - A granular material consisting of gravel, crushed carbonate stone or slag particles usually graded within a specific size range. See coarse Aggregate, Fine Aggregate.
AGITATION - Slow stirring or turning over of freshly mixed concrete to keep it in workable condition until poured into forms.
AIR COOLED SLAG - Molten slag that is permitted to solidify under prevailing atmospheric conditions, after which cooling may be accelerated by water sprays.
AIR ENTRAINED CEMENT - Cement into which the air-entrainment admixture has been incorporated at the cement plant when the cement was ground.
ASPHALT BINDER - A thermoplastic binder combining material obtained as a residue from the destructive distillation of petroleum.
ASPHALT MATERIAL - A material characterized by the presence of asphalt binders.
ASSURANCE SAMPLE - See Independent Assurance Sample.
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials - A scientific and technical organization which develops voluntary consensus standards on characteristics and performance of materials, products, systems and services.
- B -
BANK RUN - Sand and gravel in its natural condition as excavated.
BASIC OXYGEN SLAG - See Steel Furnace Slag.
BATCH - A quantity of material produced in one operation.
BATCHING PLANT - The plant either on or off the work site where the materials are assembled by batches for the mixer. Admixtures usually are added as the batch is introduced into the mixer.
BLAST FURNACE SLAG - The non-metallic product, consisting essentially of silicates and alumino-silicates of lime and of other bases that is developed simultaneously with iron in the blast furnace.
BLEEDING - Flow of water to the surface of freshly placed concrete, or the rising of an excess of asphalt binders to the surface of a asphalt mixture.
BLEND LETTER - A letter in which a contractor provides the following information prior to his production of 301 Asphalt Concrete Base: (1) Sources of materials; (2) Design mix formula, (3) Amount of material passing the No. 4 sieve.
BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY - Ratio of the weight of a material to the weight of an equal volume of water - sp.gr. Of water = 1.00
- C -
CARBONATE ROCK - A general term for sedimentary rocks that includes limestone and dolomite.
CERTIFICATION - An acceptance process by which a manufacturer or producer warrants the State that the material furnished meets the requirements specified.
CHECK SAMPLE - A sample taken only as a periodic comparison sample, not as an Acceptance or Independent Assurance Sample.
CHOKE - Aggregate used for the purpose of filling the surface voids of a coarse aggregate mixture.
CLAY - A material defined by grain size (less than 0.005 mm) and plasticity characteristics.
COARSE AGGREGATE - That portion of an aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve, or when referring to an entire aggregate, it is an aggregate predominately retained on the No. 4 sieve.
COMPACTION - A consolidation or compression of materials resulting in an increase in density of the materials.
CONFORMANCE - The degree to which a product meets the specifications.
CORE - A cylinder of concrete cut from pavement with a hollow drill. Cores are 4 inches in diameter and are used to check the thickness and strength of the concrete.
COURSE - A layer or layers of a given material or mixture placed as a part of the pavement structure.
CRUSHER RUN - The total unscreened product of a stone crusher, or the product of a crusher, unscreened except for the removal of the over-sized material.
CUT-BACK ASPHALT - A material resulting from the addition of gasoline or kerosene type distillates to Asphalt Binder.
CUT-BACK ASPHALT EMULSION - A suspension of minute particles of water in cutback asphalt.
- D -
DASH REPORT - A report issued by the OMM when more than one report is issued for a single sample.
DEGRADATION - A reduction in aggregate particle size due to breakage and wear.
DENSITY - The ratio of the weight of a given material to its volume.
D-load - The supporting strength of a pipe loaded under three-edge bearing test conditions expressed in pounds per linear foot per foot of inside diameter.
D-load, 0.01 INCH CRACK - The maximum D-load applied to a concrete pipe to produce a crack having a width of 0.01 inch throughout a length of at least one foot.
"d" REPORT - An aggregate or soil-aggregate report covering material tested at the District level.
DOCUMENTATION - Recording and filing evidence of the conformance of material or work with specifications.
DOLOMITE - A sedimentary carbonate rock consisting primarily of calcium magnesium carbonate.
- E -
ELECTRIC FURNACE SLAG - See Steel Furnace Slag.
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT - A suspension of minute particles of asphalt binder in water in the presence of an emulsifying agent such as a soap or a resin.
ENTRAINED AIR - Millions of microscopic voids introduced into concrete through an admixture to permit the cured concrete to undergo freezing and thawing without damage.
ENTRAPPED AIR - Large air bubbles which enter concrete through mixing or handling. Being undesirable, they can be removed by vibrating, spading or rodding.
EXPANDED SLAG - Molten slag treated with controlled quantities of water to accelerate the solidification and increases the cellular nature.
- F -
FINE AGGREGATE - That portion of an aggregate passing the No. 4 sieve and retained on the No. 200 sieve, or, when referring to an entire aggregate, an aggregate passing the 3/8-inch sieve and almost entirely passing the No. 4 sieve and predominantly retained on the No. 200 sieve.
FINES - Portion of an aggregate material finer than a No. 200 sieve.
FINISHING - Shaping the surface of concrete that is not shaped by forms. Also it includes filling visible voids in the concrete after the forms are removed.
- G -
GRAB SAMPLE - A sample secured from a conveyor, from bulk storage, or from a bulk shipment in one operation.
GRADATION - The classification of different sizes of aggregate within a given size of aggregate as determined by sieve tests.
GRAVEL - Coarse aggregate resulting from natural disintegration and abrasion of rock or processing of weakly bound conglomerates.
GRAVEL PIT - An excavation into a naturally occurring gravel deposit. This pit may be wet or dry depending on the relationship of the deposit extracted to natural water table.
- H -
HONEYCOMBING - Large voids in the concrete which are due to inadequate spading or consolidating.
- I -
INCREMENTS - Small portions of a material taken to form a sample.
INDEPENDENT ASSURANCE SAMPLE - Activities that are an unbiased and independent evaluation of all the sampling and testing procedures used in the acceptance program.
INSPECTOR - A representative of the Ohio Department of Transportation authorized by the Department to inspect work done and materials furnished.
INTERMINGLING - The unintentional dilution of one size of aggregate by aggregate of a different size as a result of improper storage or careless handling.
- J -
JOB CONTROL SAMPLE - See Acceptance Sample.
- L -
LABORATORY - As defined in The 2002 C&MS Section 101.03; The testing laboratories of the Department (of Transportation), including the Office of Materials Management located at 1600 West Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio, and various District testing facilities.
LIMESTONE - A bedded sedimentary deposit consisting primarily of calcium carbonate.
LIQUID ASPHALT MATERIAL - A material resulting from the mixing of Asphalt Binder with water or solvent to produce a less viscous material.
LOT - An isolated quantity of material from a single source. A measured amount of construction assumed to be produced by the same process.
- M -
MOISTURE CONTENT - The percentage by weight of water contained in soil or aggregate as compared to the same material in a completely dry condition.
MOP - Manual of Procedures - The Department's manual for inspectors that describes their inspection responsibilities, methods to use and documentation requirements.
- O -
OMM - The Ohio Department of Transportation, Office of Materials Management,
1600 West Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio 43223.
OPEN HEARTH SLAG - See Steel Furnace Slag.
- P -
PORTLAND CEMENT - A mixture of clay, limestone and other selected materials heated to high temperature and ground into powder. Mixed with water it forms a paste to surround and bind the aggregate into a solid and durable mass.
PRIME COAT - An application of asphalt material made on the surface of a pavement layer for the purpose of binding the surface particles together.
PROCESS CONTROL - The inspection and testing procedures necessary to assure the end result of production meets specification requirements.
PROJECT - The specific work to be performed under contract with the Department.
- Q -
QUALITY SAMPLE - A sample on which quality tests will be performed that will establish a quality period for the size tested.
QPL - Qualified Products List
- R -
RACP - Recycled Asphalt Concrete Pavement.
ROUND ROBIN TESTING - Testing of the same material by different labs where all labs are using the same testing process or procedure. Round Tobin Testing is a quality assurance/quality control measure that allows test results from different labs to compared and evaluated.
RPCC - Recycled Portland Cement Concrete.
- S -
STATE - The State of Ohio, Department of Transportation.
STEEL FURNACE SLAG - Product developed simultaneously with steel in open hearth basic oxygen or electric furnaces.
SUBBASE - The layer of specified, compacted material placed on the subgrade to serve as a base for pavement.
SUBGRADE - The portion of a roadbed upon which the pavement structure and shoulders are constructed.
SATURATED SURFACE DRY - (SSD) of AGGREGATES - Material may look damp but contains no free water on the surface, has completely absorbed all the moisture it can and does not contribute additional water to the mix.
- T -
TACK COAT - An application of asphalt material made on a pavement surface for the purpose of bonding the existing course to the overlying course.
TAS - Testing Administration System.
TAR - A thermoplastic bituminous cementing or binding material obtained as a residue from the destructive distillation of coal.
TOLERANCE - The permitted variation from a specified condition.
- V -
VALIDATION - The signature or initials of an authorized individual or any form or ticket denoting that the information is as stated.
VARIABLE - A measurement that can have a series of different values.
VISCOSITY - Resistance to flow in a liquid. The higher the viscosity, the greater the resistance to flow.
- Y -
YIELD - With Concrete, a check on the mix design made by dividing the total batch weight by the determined weight per cubic foot. With Asphalt Concrete, the number of square yards of surface covered by a given quantity of material.