District Construction needs to communicate with the Central Office on many issues, its primary contacts are within the Division of Construction and Division of Contracts. The Table of Organization for ODOT is shown below. http://www2.dot.state.oh.us/Info/orgtable.asp
The Central Office Division responsibilities lie in the area of policy and standard procedure development, support services and quality assurance. More specifically, its roles are:
· Work with other offices to develop specifications and policies that apply to the day to day operations at the project level.
· Acts as a liaison with other offices, the various trade organizations and FHWA on matters concerning ODOT's specifications, policies and procedures.
· Acts as a consultant to the Districts in matters concerning contract administration.
· Provides training to the Districts in contract administration.
· Reviews and reports the effectiveness of various construction methods and materials and provides advice on their use.
· Conducts Quality Assurance Reviews (QAR) to assure that ODOT's policies, procedures and specifications are being followed uniformly.
· Develops the performance measures by which the Districts are judged.
· Conducts the administrative closing of Contracts.
· Provides support to the Districts, Testing and Estimating Offices.
The responsibilities described above are of a general nature. The Division of Construction also has some specific approval functions that relate directly to the District. They are as follows:
· Answer Legal questions and depositions regarding claims.
· Answer prebid questions through the Office of Estimating.
· Testifying, and reporting extra work to the State Controlling Board.
· Create and publish the Construction and Materials Specifications, along with the quarterly publication of all other specifications.
· Tracks and reports on change orders and provides feedback to Production offices.
· Materials testing, and specification development including new product review.
· Estimating analysis of trends, bid review, and change order support.
As mentioned above, the Division of Construction has the responsibility Construction Administration, the Central Laboratory and Office of Estimating. The Office of Construction Administration has experts in the areas of concrete, asphalt, traffic, bridges, contracts, and scheduling who can provide advice to the Districts and initiate specification or policy changes.
The Division of Construction Management Policies and Standard procedures can be found online here:
All District responsibilities begin with the District Deputy Director (DDD). The DDD through the Highway Management Administrator (HMA) and the District Construction Engineer is responsible for the administration of all contracts sold for the construction, reconstruction and maintenance of the highway system within the District.
While Central Office's responsibilities are primarily general in nature, the District's responsibilities are very specific. Although the Districts have always been responsible for the administration of all contracts within the District, they now have additional authority to help in the administration of these contracts. The following is a summary of various District responsibilities required by state policies and procedures as they relate to contract administration:
· Assure that all work done on each project is performed in accordance with the project's requirements (plans, proposal, specifications, supplemental specifications, special provisions, etc.)
· Approval of all change orders that do not require approval by the Director as defined in the Interim Standard Procedure 510-010(SIP).
· Approval of all time extensions and waivers.
· Review the contractor/subcontractor certified payrolls for compliance with the contract requirements.
· Review the contractor's performance and compliance with the contracts Equal Employment Opportunity requirements.
· Approve all estimates for work completed on the projects.
· Perform the final inspection and approve the final inspection report.
· Review the project records to assure that all requirements have been met.
· Monitor Local Participating Agency (LPA) projects to assure compliance with FHWA requirements.
· Prepare and approve the Final Package on the project.
· Issue the final acceptance letter and submit the finalized project to the Auditor.
The general responsibilities and requirements assigned to each District rest in the hands of the District Construction Office and specifically the District Construction Engineer (DCE). This person, with the approval of the District Deputy Director and Highway Management Administrator, is responsible for the administration of the contracts involving the construction, reconstruction and maintenance of the District's highway system as well as local projects involving State and Federal aid on the State's system. The DCE is responsible for assigning personnel to the project for this purpose. In addition, the DCE will work to resolve issues at the lowest possible level.
As part of this reorganization, each county is now under the supervision of a County Manager. This person will be involved with all work within the county. The County Manager will ultimately be the owner of the construction end product. Therefore, they must be involved in the construction process. As part of their duties, they will provide the inspection force used in the contract administration. Their involvement will depend on their authority level which may vary from district to district.
The District is responsible for the following general issues:
· Provide a description of the work through the plans, proposal, specifications, supplemental specifications and special provisions.
· Provide a method to pay for completed work.
· Provide a project site with full access for the contractor to begin work. This includes right of way purchases and utility relocations.
· Furnish an adequate and trained inspection/engineering force at the project level.
· Secure good workmanship by the contractor. This involves the monitoring by the project staff of all operations for compliance with the documents described above.
· Arrive at decisions in a thoughtful manner with due consideration of all facts involved.
· Make decisions in a timely manner to avoid undue delay.
· Promptly pay the contractor for completed work.
· Monitor the contractor's compliance with the legal aspects of the contract such as prevailing wage and equal employment opportunity requirements.
· Review the contractor's work zone traffic control to ensure the public can pass through the work zone with the least interference.
· Respond to any complaints or questions in a timely manner.
Almost everything done at the project level affects another party. Because of this, the project personnel are constantly subject to pressures from outside sources. We should always be mindful of the needs of these parties, the effects of the project on them, their relationship to the project and their affect on the project. Many of these outside forces are shown on the facing page.
Although the primary parties to any contract administered by ODOT are the contractor and ODOT, other political subdivisions may also be involved either directly or indirectly. During the administration of each project, these relationships should be recognized and addressed.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is involved in many projects administered by ODOT. Federal funds are available for many programs and are utilized by both ODOT and local political subdivisions for improvement to their roadway systems. Their involvement varies with the type of project and its location on the National Highway System. FHWA's philosophy for review of federal aid projects has evolved over the years and now is as follows:
Major projects on the National Highway System (NHS) will continue to receive the most attention from FHWA. FHWA will be involved from preliminary design to finalization. This will include periodic reviews to monitor the project's progress and participation in the final inspection.
FHWA, with the advent of ISTEA, has taken a step back in the tight oversight that had existed on all federal aid projects. On most federal aid projects, both with ODOT or local participation, FHWA has minor on site participation. It does not get involved with the project specifically but expects ODOT to administer these projects in accordance with the plans and specifications and then certify that this has been done.
FHWA will still participate in reviews of our policies, procedures and specifications. At the project level, this may involve a review of an individual process (paving, traffic control, etc.) which is being studied statewide.
Many contracts involve direct local participation. The Local Participating Agency (LPA) will provide funds for their portion of the contract and the remainder may be provided by either FHWA or ODOT or both. These projects may be administered by the Local or the Department. If the Local administers the project, the Department will monitor via the District Construction Monitor. See the Locally Administered Transportation Project Manual of Procedures for guidelines. If ODOT administers the project, the LPA will have to live with the project after we are done. Therefore, with this in mind, ODOT should:
· Invite the LPA to the pre construction meeting and all progress meetings.
· Keep the LPA informed to all changes to the contract.
The above is especially true when dealing with changes requiring large increases in the local participation.
The LPA must be involved in the final inspection.
The LPA must give their final approval and acceptance to the project.
In order to implement both the letter and spirit of any contract, it is necessary to have clearly defined lines of authority and communication between ODOT and the contractor. This section will present a framework to establish these lines.
The purpose of this section is to give guidance to the project personnel on how to administer the physical work of the contract. We will briefly describe the authority levels of the project personnel and explain the different items they have to work with on the job site. We will discuss items that need submitted to different offices.
The Engineer is in charge of all details on the assigned project. The Engineer is the direct representative of the Department and has immediate charge of engineering details of each construction project. The Engineer is responsible for the administration and satisfactory completion of the project. The Engineer has the authority to reject defective work, suspend work being improperly performed and order the replacement of defective material.
It is important to note that the Engineer’s acceptance does not constitute a waiver of the Department’s right to pursue any and all legal remedies for defective work or work performed by the Contractor in an unworkmanlike manner.
The Engineer is responsible for the following:
· Assignment of the inspection duties at the project level.
· Instruction of the inspection force in the requirements of the project and the items being constructed including:
o Addenda, proposal and supplemental specifications, equipment, i.e. concrete testing kit.
· Review of materials to be incorporated in the work. This may involve rejection of materials.
· Timely payment for work performed by performing the following activities:
o Input daily diaries on CMS, review estimates, verify payrolls, obtain approval of sampled materials.
· Determine the need for change orders within the scope of the contract.
· Monitors the project and discusses progress schedule with Contractor's Superintendent.
· Maintaining project records.
o Work performed, Contractor's equipment, materials, significant events of the day.
o Job correspondence.
o Letters from Contractors, Utility companies and from other public agencies, any correspondence from District or internal agencies.
o Minutes from project progress meetings, including: who attended, items discussed, resolutions to problems.
o Other pertinent documents.
o Shop drawings, working drawings, erection procedures.
· Address and resolve job site problems in a timely manner
· Provide the Contractor with specific information regarding the usage of Contingency quantities, "As directed" items.
· Reports to District Construction Engineer any major change in conditions, traffic accidents, status of project.
· Determines final quantities, assures the Contractor completes the punch list items, completes project files, schedules Final Inspection.
The Inspector is the front line ODOT representative at the project level. The Inspector has authority to inspect all work performed and materials used. Authority to reject non conforming materials, suspend operations until problem is resolved by Engineer. The Inspector can neither alter the contract nor issue orders contrary to the contract.
The Inspector is responsible for the following:
· Inspects all work performed. This inspection will be done in accordance with ODOT policies and this manual, and includes daily record keeping.
· Reports quantities of work satisfactorily completed in the units established by the contract.
· Inspects and samples the materials incorporated into the work.
· Can reject unsuitable materials and suspend operations until an issue is resolved by the Engineer or DCE.
· Inspects the material incorporated into the project.
· Familiar with manuals and specifications of items of work being inspected.
· Communicates daily issues to the Engineer.
· Communicates with Contractor to assure proper installation of work.
The Inspector cannot waive the Department’s right to pursue any and all legal remedies for defective work or work performed by the Contractor in an unworkmanlike manner.
The Contractor's Superintendent is responsible for the work. He/she must be capable of reading and thoroughly understanding the plans and specifications and be experienced in the work. There will be only one superintendent who shall have full authority to execute instructions of the project engineer and shall be in charge of all construction operations regardless of who performs the work.
The Engineer must determine the level of the Superintendent's authority to perform the work. The Engineer should know if the Superintendent can agree to extra work, get the equipment needed to get the job done and know if they can follow through with final quantities agreed on.
Remember that the Contractor bears sole responsibility for the quality of work and compliance with the contract regardless of the Department’s level of inspection.
The Contractor must provide a Superintendent on the Project at all times, that is responsible for all aspects of the Work, irrespective of the amount of subcontract Work.
The Contractor is responsible for the following general issues:
· In order to submit a bid that adequately reflects the conditions of the contract, the contractor must research all aspects of the contract such as visiting the project site, understanding the plan notes, reviewing all plan requirements.
· The contractor must notify ODOT of the project's starting date and keep ODOT informed of the proposed schedule of operations. This allows ODOT to anticipate engineering and inspection needs and therefore, efficiently manage staff.
· The contractor must provide a list of material suppliers. ODOT then can review the proposed list and obtain required samples. It should be submitted early to avoid delays associated with sampling and testing.
· The contractor must carry out the work on the projects in a diligent manner utilizing adequate labor.
· In order to manage the project efficiently and to avoid project related problems, the contractor must be aware of all federal, state and local laws that apply. Many of the legal requirements of the contract are addressed in the proposal but the contractor must also be aware of other regulations such as safety, which is not thoroughly detailed in ODOT's specifications but is extremely important. ODOT requires the contractor to protect and indemnify ODOT from all claims and liability resulting from negligence or willful violations.
· When open to traffic, the contractor must maintain the project in order to permit the public to move safely through. This includes using clean, readable signs, and traffic control devices, and maintaining the project free of debris.
· Once notified of problems the contractor must respond quickly to correct it. This is extremely important when the situation involves public safety.
Contract documents are prepared to promote agreement between the various parts of the plans and specifications that control the work. In case of disagreement between the plans and specifications, the following will govern in descending order:
· Special provisions / proposal
· Calculated Dimensions
· Scaled Dimensions
· Supplemental Specifications
· Standard Specifications
The Contractor shall take no advantage of any apparent error or emission in the plans or specifications. In the event the Contractor discovers such an error or emission, the Contractor shall immediately notify the Engineer.
The proposal details numerous bidding, EEO, regulatory, special issues and general requirements of the contract. The proposal may include details for Incentives, and the schedule requirements. It also includes a list of bid items, and the wage rates that are in effect on the project. The proposal language overrules all plan, and specification items.
The plans show details of structures, the line, grades, typical cross sections of the roadway and the location and design of structures. The contractor shall keep one set of project plans available at the project site. No changes shall be made to the plans except as approved by the engineer.
The plans shall be supplemented by working drawings when required to control the work adequately. Working drawings shall be furnished by the contractor. Working drawings shall not be prepared until the applicable field and plan elevations, dimensions and geometries have been verified by the contractor. Specific items of work shall require working drawings. These requirements are stated in the specification section that is applicable to the item of work. See table below for typical examples of number of copies and where to submit the different types of working drawings.
Structural steel and other metal items, prestressed concrete members, precast concrete structural elements joint sealing devices and other similar items requiring either shop or field fabrication
Overhead sign support
Roadside sign support
Traffic signal heads
* Certified working Drawings Section 625.06, 630.03
Sections 200 thru 600 of the Construction and Material Specifications are used to obtain the workmanship compliance required for each item. These specifications are typically arranged in the following manner:
· Construction Requirements
· Method of measurement
· Basis of Payment
Section 700 of the Construction and Material Specifications describe the material requirements. Supplemental Specifications (SS) are standalone items that usually have their own pay items. The SS800 is a specification called out on every project that provides corrections to the Construction and Material Specifications.
Utilities will be encountered on most construction projects. The proposal will include a utility note that designates the utility names and times that they will be relocated. The Plans should include the detailed locations of the utility changes. If the utility owners fail to relocate or adjust utilities as provided for in the Contract Documents and the Contractor sustains losses that could not have been avoided by the judicious handling of forces, equipment, and plant, or by reasonable revisions to the schedule of operations, then the Engineer will adjust the Contract by change orders. Change orders should properly denote the reasons codes as follows:
14, UTILITY RELOCATION DELAY.
15, IMPROPERLY LOCATED UTILITY.
16, UNKNOWN UTILITY.
17, DELAY CAUSED FOR REASONS OTHER THAN UTILITIES.
Prior to hauling equipment or materials, the Contractor will provide written notification to the Engineer of the specific roads or streets on the haul route. The following procedure should be followed:
· The contractor requests, through ODOT, that certain local roadways be used for hauling material and equipment to and from the project.
· ODOT reviews the request and contacts the LPA.
· If there is no objection by ODOT or the LPA the roadway is designated as a haul road.
· The roadway's condition is reviewed prior to hauling.
· If, during the course of the project, the roadway becomes dangerous, ODOT will have the contractor repair it.
· Once the project is completed, the condition is again reviewed.
· The roadway will be restored to its original condition either through the contract or by other means.
The purpose of this section is to establish uniform practices for administering borrow and waste areas. It is the Department’s policy to approve requests to locate borrow and waste areas, providing that:
· The location would not adversely affect the highway.
· The material is disposed of legally.
· The disposal minimizes the Department’s future liability.
· All environmental laws are observed.
· The offsite locations are serving the public and land owners best interest.
· The areas are restored according to the contract.
· This section covers all borrow or waste areas on or off the right-of–way.
Material from outside the right-of-way used in embankment construction is considered to be borrow even though it is not paid for as borrow. Therefore, this section applies to all borrow and waste areas, including areas from which material is furnished and paid for under “203 Embankment,” as well as areas from which material is furnished and paid for under “203 Borrow.”
Requests from the Contractor to locate borrow and waste areas shall be directed to the Engineer, who shall either approve or disapprove the request. Action on each request shall be based on the information contained in the plan submitted by the Contractor, approvals from other ODOT Offices, certifications from environmental consultants, and other supplemental information available to the Engineer.
See section 107.10 for criteria for evaluating borrow and waste environmental and other significant issues.
Specific considerations, which are made a part of the general conditions for approval, include, but are not limited to, the following:
1. All of the general information listed in A through G of 105.16 are addressed in the Contractor’s submittal.
2. For borrow and waste areas which will not become ponds when the work is completed:
a. The area shall be graded to assure positive drainage.
b. Restoration of all borrow and waste areas shall include cleanup, shaping replacement of topsoil, and establishment of vegetative cover by seeding, and mulching according to 659.
3. For pits which will become ponds when the work is completed:
a. In general, ponds are not considered objectionable, and often are considered highly desirable by property owners and persons engaged in conservation of natural resources and wildlife. The creation of additional ponds from borrow pits can provide enhanced environmental benefits, providing that they are constructed properly to avoid shallow stagnant water and are left in a condition to present a aesthetically pleasing appearance. If the pond is on the right of way then approval should be sought from the County Manager and District Production since the District may not want to take the long-term responsibility for the pond.
4. Borrow Pit Final Grading:
a. The tops of the pit slope shall be at least 25 feet (8m) from the highway right-of-way. This distance may be increased if there are slope stability or erosion problems. Twenty-five feet (8m) has worked well in the past.
b. Borrow pit slopes adjacent to the highway shall not be steeper than 3 to 1, and all other borrow pit slopes shall not be steeper than 2 to 1.
c. The borrow pit must be left in a condition satisfactory to the Engineer to blend with adjacent topography when the work is completed.
Slope stability problems resulting from borrow and waste area construction is the sole responsibility of the Contractor. The Department is keenly interested in the Contractor’s filling and cutting operations. The Department must assess the potential for settlement and future slides. The proper design and construction of the borrow and waste areas are provided in 105.16 and references in the Location and Design Manual.
Most of the ‘Stability and Settlement’ issues can be evaluated by using the following general guidance:
1. If the material is placed according to C&MS, use a maximum slope of 2:1. Use a 3:1 slope if the embankment is higher than 30 feet (9 m).
2. Only end dump in nonstructural locations. Use a 4:1 slope if the material is end dumped. These areas may need to be re-graded at some future time. Large settlements should be anticipated if the material is end dumped in lifts greater than 3 feet (1 m).
3. Areas with soft foundations should be closely evaluated when the fill height is greater than 20 feet (6.1 m).
4. If the off site location exceeds the above criteria, or when constructing a non-structural fill, then the property owner should be explicitly told in the agreement with the Contractor. The borrow or waste agreement must explicitly state that the property owners know that these location may settle and potentially slide. If this is not explicitly stated then the public may be misled in believing that the final fill will be stable. The Department has a stake in making sure that the property owner is not misled.
5. For proposed locations in the right-of way that exceeds the above criteria or looks suspicious, contact the District Geotechnical Engineer or the Office of Geotechnical Engineering.
The EPA regulates materials that come from structure removal, pipe removal, clearing or grubbing, and tree and brush removal operations. The EPA encourages the reuse of construction materials.
The OAC 3745-37, OAC-3745-400 and ORC Chapter 3714 regulate the use and disposal of this material. The law is governed by the OEPA or the Local Boards of Health whichever has jurisdiction. The law governs the debris from construction sites that are not covered under solid or hazardous waste or other regulations. Use the following links:
By the EPA definition, “Construction and demolition and debris” (debris) is the material resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair of any manmade physical structure. Those materials are those structural and functional materials comprising the structure and surrounding site improvements (e.g. fences, sidewalks). The definition identifies structures that are included and materials that comprise the structure, which are considered debris. Any materials that are removed prior to demolition or are not part of the structure and surrounding site will not be considered debris.
The contract documents may require TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing of the debris prior to transport and disposal.
Debris does not include materials identified or listed as solid wastes, infectious wastes, or hazardous waste.
The rule identifies other process materials (e.g. mining operations, non-toxic fly ash, etc.) that are not debris.
The legal removal and disposal of all of the following materials are the responsibility of the Contractor. The specifications have been radically changes to address these issues. The project should monitor the Contractor’s work to minimize the Department’s future liability.
Clean hard fill material (such as asphalt millings), or portland cement concrete material (or mixtures of these materials with soil, aggregate etc.) coming from pavement or structural removal operations. Clean hard fill may be used as:
· Fill, recycled, or taken to an approved Construction and Demolition Debris Site.
· Fill on or off the project provided the material is acceptable under Item 203. If the material is being used as fill off the site, the OEPA or local board of health in the area of the filling operations needs written notification seven days prior to the filling operation. See the definition of “on site”.
· These materials cannot be indiscriminately piled up and left. These materials must be placed in fill areas not in disposal piles.
· May be taken to a recycling operation for recycling and storage. Storage must be less than 2 years.
Construction Debris such as wood, plaster, etc. in whole or mixed with clean hard fill.
These materials are:
· Usually associated with building debris.
· Do not meet the 203 embankment specifications and cannot be used in fill operations.
· Must be taken to an approved construction demolition debris site or licensed solid waste disposal facility.
This law also regulates the disposal of landscape waste that result from roadway clearing and grubbing operations. Landscape wastes include brush, trees, stumps, tree trimmings, branches, weeds, leaves, grass, shrubbery, yard trimmings, crop residue, and other plant matter, excluding soil and garbage.
These wastes may be re-used by:
· Constructing a wildlife habitat according to published guidelines from the Ohio Division of Wildlife, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, or Natural Resources Conservation Services. This is subject to local board of health or local OEPA approval;
· Chipping waste into mulch and using or donating it for use on or off the site;
· Selling or donating the waste for non-burial beneficial purposes;
· Using the waste for any beneficial use or re-use approved by the local OEPA offices or the local board of health; or
· Using the waste as fill material ‘on site’ from which the waste was generated. Item 203 Embankment does not allow these wastes in embankments or structural areas. On-site placement is permitted in non-structural areas. See 105.16 Borrow and Waste, “Stability and Settlement Concerns” in this manual. (OEPA guidance for ‘on site’ means any location on the right of way. This can be outside the construction limits or even on other state owned properties. If large amounts of these wastes are to be generated then the designer may provide specific right-of way locations to dispose of these wastes. See 105.16 Borrow and Waste Areas section “Approval of Wasting on the Right of Way” in this manual.)
All landscape wastes associated with ODOT projects are required to be disposed of at an appropriate landfill.
These wastes may be disposed of by:
· Open burning with permission from OEPA. See 105.16 Borrow and Waste, “Open Burning Permits” in this manual;
· Composting at an OEPA registered composting facility; or
· Sending material less than 4 inches (10.6 cm) in size to a sanitary landfill and material greater than 4 inches (10.6 cm) in size to construction and demolition debris landfill. Leaves cannot be taken to a construction and demolition debris landfill.
In recent years, we have increased the amount of Portland Cement Concrete Waste that is wasted on and off the right of way.
Large accumulation of Portland Cement Concrete Waste can cause high pH runoff in the range of 11 to 12. Runoff with a pH of 12.5 is considered a hazardous waste. Uncontrolled disposal of Portland Cement Concrete Waste can cause significant environmental degradation in the ground water and surrounding water bodies.
The potential for environmental problems are a function of the availability of water, geometry of the flow net, permeability of the material and the distance to a water body or ground water.
To minimize these potential future environmental problems, we have changed the specifications. In 105.17, we require the following (see Figure 105.17.A):
· Mixing of the inner core of the Portland Cement Concrete Waste with at least 30 % soil.
· Covering the mixed Portland Cement Concrete Waste with 3 feet (1 m) of soil on the top and 8 feet (2.4 m) on the sides.
· Placing and compacting the Portland Cement Concrete Waste according to 203.06.D.
Figure 105.17.A Typical Drawing of the Wasting of Portland Cement Concrete Waste