703  AGGREGATE

703.01  General.

The following abbreviations apply: 

          CCS- Crushed Carbonate Stone.

          ACBFS- Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag

          GS- Granulated Slag

          RACP – Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement 

          RPCC- Recycled Portland Cement Concrete

          OH- Open Hearth Slag

          EAF- Electric Arc Furnace Slag

          BOF- Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag

          PCS – Petroleum Contaminated Soil

A.      Soundness.  When the major portion of the unsound material in a coarse aggregate acquires a mud-like condition when tested for soundness, ensure that the maximum loss for all uses is 5 percent.

B.      Stockpiles.  Use stockpiling and loading methods that permit ready identification of the aggregates and to minimize segregation.  Clean the sites for stockpiles before storing materials.  Do not remove aggregates from stockpiles within 1 foot (0.3 m) of the ground until final cleanup of the work.  Do not use material that has become mixed with foreign matter, wood or other size or grades of aggregates.

Handle aggregates in such a manner that the moisture content is reasonably uniform for each day’s run.

C.      Size.  Provide aggregate according to the size specified in the material specification, the construction item, or as shown in AASHTO M 43.

D.      Method of Test.  Provide aggregate tested by the following methods:

Amount finer than No. 200 (75 mm) sieve............... S1004

Clay lumps............................................................... S1017

Coal and lignite........................................ AASHTO T 113

Crushed pieces........................................... ASTM D 5821

Deleterious materials................................................ S1029

Effect of organic impurities on

strength of mortar..................................... AASHTO T 71

Liquid limit................................................ AASHTO T 89

Percent of wear, Los Angeles

.... abrasion test.............. AASHTO T 96 or ASTM C 535

Plasticity index.......................................... AASHTO T 90

Sieve analysis............................................... S1004, S1005

Sieve analysis of mineral filler................... AASHTO T 37

Sodium sulfate soundness test,

.... 5 cycle................................................. AASHTO T104

Specific Gravity and percent absorption

.... for fine and coarse aggregate................................ S1031

unit weight............................................... AASHTO T 19

Light weight chert in aggregates.............. AASHTO T 113

Sand equivalent....................................... AASHTO T 176

Uncompacted void content..................... AASHTO T 304

Flat and elongated...................................... ASTM D 4791

Rapid freezing and thawing.... ASTM C 666, Procedure B

Insoluble residue of carbonate

.... aggregates.............................................. ASTM D 3042

Compaction testing of Unbound Materials.............. S1015

In place gradation sampling...................................... S1090

Sulphur leachate test................................................ S1027

Soundness of aggregate by freezing

.... and thawing........................................ AASHTO T 103

Micro-Deval……………………………..AASHTO T 327

Silicon Dioxide……………………………...ASTM C 146

Sodium sulfate soundness test,

.... Rock slabs………………………………ASTM D 5240

 

E.      Steel Slag Aggregate.  Provide open-hearth (OH), basic oxygen furnace (BOF,) and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag aggregate (known as steel slag) according to the following requirements when 703.04 aggregate for asphalt concrete base or when any 703.05 aggregate is specified.

Supply all steel slag from sources according to Supplement 1071.  Furnish steel slag to a size meeting the specified grading requirements.  Provide steel slag aggregate that meets the specified coarse or fine aggregate quality requirements.  Ensure that measurement of soft pieces includes soft lime, lime oxide, or magnesia agglomerations or any foreign materials prone to rapid disintegration under construction processing and weathering conditions.  Ensure that additional testing beyond those listed are performed or required any time poor quality steel slag is suspected due to visual inspection, testing, or field performance problems.

For every shipment of steel slag aggregate to the Contractor, provide a letter of certification covering the steel slag in the shipment to the Engineer from the processor and copies of quality control records from the processor (according to Supplement 1071).  Ensure that the letter of certification documents that steel slag production and processing or slag by product stockpile retrieval and processing was according to Supplement 1071.  Failure to follow the processor QC plan or continued problems with performance recognized by the Laboratory attributable to steel slag is cause for limiting steel slag use from that processor.

OH, BOF, or EAF slag is not permitted for coarse or fine aggregate (virgin or recycled) used in any surface course mix or any mix used as a surface course according to 703.05.

F.      Restrictions.  When an aggregate source is specially designated with a “SR or SRH” on the aggregate source group list according to Guidelines for Maintaining Adequate Pavement Friction in Surface Pavements, the aggregate source will be restricted for use in surface pavement pursuant to the methods in the guidelines.  Remaining on the aggregate source group list is conditioned on complying with the group list procedures and requirements of 703.

 


TABLE 703.01-1  SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE (AASHTO M 43)

Size

No.

Nominal size square openings (1)

Amounts finer than each laboratory sieve (square openings), percent by weight

4

3 1/2

3

2 1/2

2

1 1/2

1

3/4

1/2

3/8

No. 4

No. 8

No. 16

No. 50

No. 100

1

3 1/2 to 1 1/2

100

90 to 100

 

25 to 60

 

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2 1/2 to 1 1/2

 

 

100

90 to 100

35 to 70

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

3 1/2 to 3/4

 

 

100

90 to 100

 

25 to 60

 

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

2 to 1

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

35 to 70

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

357

2 to No. 4

 

 

 

100

95 to 100

 

35 to 70

 

10 to 30

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

4

1 1/2 to 3/4

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

467

1 1/2 to No. 4

 

 

 

 

100

95 to 100

 

35 to 70

 

10 to 30

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

5

1 to 1/2

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

56

1 to 3/8

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

40 to 75

15 to 35

0 to 15

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

57

1 to No. 4

 

 

 

 

 

100

95 to 100

 

25 to 60

 

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

6

3/4 to 3/8

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

0 to 15

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

67

3/4 to No. 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

 

20 to 55

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

68

3/4 to No. 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

 

30 to 65

5 to 25

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

7

1/2 to No. 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

40 to 70

0 to 15

0 to 5

 

 

 

78

1/2 to No. 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

40 to 75

5 to 25

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

8

3/8 to No. 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

85 to 100

10 to 30

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

89

3/8 to No. 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

5 to 30

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

9

No. 4 to No. 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

85 to 100

10 to 40

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

10

No. 4 to 0 (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

85 to 100

 

 

 

10 to 30

 

(1)  In inches, except where otherwise indicated.  Numbered sieves are those of the united States Standard Sieve Series.

(2) Screenings.

Where standard size of coarse aggregate designated by two or three digit numbers are specified, obtain the specified gradation by combining the appropriate single digit standard size aggregates by a suitable proportioning device which has a separate compartment for each coarse aggregate combined.  Perform the blending as directed by the Laboratory.

 

TABLE 703.01-1M  SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE (AASHTO M 43)

Size

No.

Nominal

Size square

Openings (1)

Amounts finer than each laboratory sieve (square openings), percent by weight

100

90

75

63

50

37.5

25

19

12.5

9.5

4.75

2.36

1.18

300 mm

150 mm

1

90 to 37.5

100

90 to 100

 

25 to 60

 

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

63 to 37.5

 

 

100

90 to 100

35 to 70

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

63 to 19.0

 

 

100

90 to 100

 

25 to 60

 

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

50 to 25.0

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

35 to 70

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

357

50 to 4.75

 

 

 

100

95 to 100

 

35 to 70

 

10 to 30

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

4

37.5 to 19.0

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

0 to 15

 

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

467

37.5 to 4.75

 

 

 

 

100

95 to 100

 

35 to 70

 

10 to 30

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

5

25.0 to 12.5

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

 

6

25.0 to 9.5

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

40 to 75

15 to 35

0 to 15

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

57

25.0 to 4.75

 

 

 

 

 

100

95 to 100

 

25 to 60

 

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

6

19.0 to 9.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

0 to 15

0 to 5

 

 

 

 

67

19.0 to 4.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

 

20 to 55

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

 

68

19.0 to 2.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

 

30 to 65

5 to 25

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

7

12.5 to 2.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

40 to 70

0 to 15

0 to 5

 

 

 

78

9.5 to 2.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

40 to 75

5 to 25

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

8

9.5 to 1.18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

85 to 100

10 to 30

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

 

89

4.75 to 1.18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

90 to 100

20 to 55

5 to 30

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

9

4.75 to 1.18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

85 to 100

10 to 40

0 to 10

0 to 5

 

10

4.75 to 0(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

85 to 100

 

 

 

10 to 30

(1)    In millimeters, except where otherwise indicated.

(2)    Screenings.

Where standard size of coarse aggregate designated by two or three digit numbers are specified, obtain the specified gradation by combining the appropriate single digit standard size aggregates by a suitable proportioning device which has a separate compartment for each coarse aggregate combined.  Perform the blending as directed by the Laboratory.

 


703.02  Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete.

A.      Fine Aggregate.

1.       Provide fine aggregate consisting of natural sand or sand manufactured from stone.  Natural sand is required in Items 255, 256, 451, 452, 526, and 511 deck slabs.

2.       Sieve analysis.

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

100

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

95 to 100

No. 8 (2.36 mm)

70 to 100

No. 16 (1.18 mm)

38 to 80

No. 30 (600 mm)

18 to 60

No. 50 (300 mm)

5 to 30

No. 100 (150 mm)

0 to 10

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 5

 

Should the fineness modulus of a job control sample of sand from any source vary by more than 0.20 percent from that of the representative sample from that source, the sand may be rejected.

3.       Soundness, etc.

 

Maximum Percent

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test

 

Item 305

12

Items 255, 256, 451, 452, 511, 515, 519, 526, 602, 603, 604, 608, 609, 610, 622, and 625

10

Aggregations of soil, silt, etc. by weight

0.50

 

When tested for the effect of organic impurities on strength of mortar, ensure that the compressive strength at 3 and 7 days of mortar made with untreated sand is not less than 95 percent of the compressive strength of mortar made with treated sand.

Provide fine aggregate for Items 255, 256, 451,  452, 526, and 511 deck slabs with at least 25 percent siliceous particles as determined by the acid insoluble residue test [ASTM D3042].  Assure material has been tested and results are on file at the Laboratory.  For sources not tested and on file at the laboratory, submit certified test data from an AMRL accredited independent laboratory verifying the minimum 25 percent.

B.      Coarse Aggregate.

1.       Provide coarse aggregate consisting of washed gravel, CCS, or crushed ACBFS. 

 

2.       Physical properties.

Percent of wear, Los Angeles test, maximum

   (CCS or washed gravel)

40

unit weight, compacted, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) minimum (slag)

70 (1120)

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, %, maximum:

 

   Item 305

15

   Items 255, 256, 451, 452, 511, 519, 526, 602, 603, 604, 609, 610, 622, and 625

12

   Item 515

10

 

Deleterious substances shall not exceed the following:

 

Percent by Weight

Material Type

Super-Structure

All Other Concrete

Soft pieces

2.0

3.0

Coal and lignite

0.25

1.0

Clay lumps

0.25

0.25

Pieces having a length greater than 5 times the average thickness

15

15

Shale and shaly material

0.5

1.0

Limonitic concretions

0.5

1.0

Alkali

0.5

1.0

Metallic particles

0.5

1.0

Chert, that disintegrates in 5 cycles of the soundness test

0.5

1.0

 

3.       Amount passing the No. 200 (75 mm) sieve.  Ensure that the percent by weight of material passing the No. 200 (75 mm) sieve in the aggregate portion of the concrete mix does not exceed the following:

Material Type

Percent by Weight

Super-Structure

All Other Concrete

CCS and crushed ACBFS

3.4

3.8

Washed gravel

2.0

2.2

 

703.03  Fine Aggregate for Mortar or Grout.

A.     Provide fine aggregate consisting of natural sand or sand manufactured from stone or ACBFS.

Sieve Analysis

 

Total Percent Passing

Sieve Size

Natural Sand

Manufactured Sand

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

100

100

No. 8 (2.36 mm)

95 to 100

95 to 100

No. 50 (300 mm)

10 to 40

20 to 40

No. 100 (150 mm)

0 to 15

10 to 25

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 5

0 to 10

 

B.      Soundness, etc.

 

Maximum

Percent

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, %, maximum:

10

Aggregations of soil, silt, etc.

0.50

 

When tested for the effect or organic impurities on strength of mortar, ensure that the compressive strength of mortar made with untreated sand is not less than 95 percent of the compressive strength of mortar made with treated sand.

703.04  Aggregate for Asphalt Concrete Base (301 and 302).

A.     Provide coarse aggregate for asphalt concrete base used in combination with rigid pavement consisting of CCS, gravel, or crushed ACBFS. 

          Provide coarse aggregate for asphalt concrete base used in flexible pavements consisting of CCS, gravel (see footnote 1), or crushed ACBFS.    Provide fine aggregate for asphalt concrete base consisting of natural sand or sand manufactured from stone, gravel, or ACBFS.  Crushed Steel Slag (OH, EAF or BOF) conforming to 703.01.E and 401.03 may be used for coarse and fine aggregate in asphalt concrete base used in flexible pavements.

B.      Physical properties.

Percent of wear, Los Angeles test, maximum (CCS or washed gravel)

50

unit weight, compacted, lb/ft3 (kg/m3), minimum (slag)

65 (1040)

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, %, maximum

15

Percent of fractured pieces (one or more faces), minimum

40

Deleterious substances shall not exceed the following:

 

Material Type

Percent by

Weight

Soft pieces

3.0

Coal and lignite

1.0

Clay lumps

0.25

Pieces having a length greater than 5 times the average thickness

15

Shale and shaly material

2.5

Chert that disintegrates in 5 cycles of the soundness test

2.5

Micro-Deval Abrasion Loss test, % maximum (for coarse aggregate gravel only)

22

footnote (1)

 

Footnote (1)            If the MD value is greater than the specification limit conform to Supplement 1010.

 

703.05  Aggregate for Asphalt Concrete (Intermediate and Surface Courses), Prime Coat (408), Chip Coat (422), and Microsurfacing (421).

A.      Fine Aggregate.

1.       Provide fine aggregate consisting of natural sand or sand manufactured from stone, gravel ACBFS.or, for intermediate courses only, steel slag (OH, EAF or BOF) conforming to 703.01.E and 401.03.

2.       Sieve analysis.

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

100

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

90 to 100

No. 8 (2.36 mm)

65 to 100

No. 16 (1.18 mm)

40 to 85

No. 30 (600 mm)

20 to 60

No. 50 (300 mm)

7 to 40

No. 100 (150 mm)

0 to 20

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 10

 

3.       Soundness, etc.

 

Maximum

Percent

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, %

15

Aggregations of soil, silt, etc., by weight

0.5

 

B.      Coarse Aggregate.

1.       Provide coarse aggregate consisting of CCS, crushed ACBFS, washed gravel. , or, for intermediate courses only, steel slag (OH, EAF or BOF) conforming to 703.01.E and 401.03.

 

 

2.       Physical properties.

Percent of wear, Los Angeles test, maximum (CCS or washed gravel)

40

unit weight, compacted, lb/ft3 (kg/m3), minimum (slag):

 

   Asphalt Concrete, 408 and 422

70 (1120)

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, %, maximum:

 

   Asphalt Concrete and 422

12

   421

15

Percent by weight of fractured pieces (one or more faces), minimum

40

Deleterious substances will not exceed the following:

 

Material Type

Percent by

Weight

Soft pieces

3.0

Coal and lignite

1.0

Clay lumps

0.25

Amount finer than No. 200 (75 mm) sieve

3.0

Pieces having a length greater than 5 times the average thickness

15

Shale and shaly material

2.5

Limonitic concretions

2.5

Alkali

2.5

Chert, that disintegrates in 5 cycles of the soundness test

2.5

Micro-Deval Abrasion Loss test, % maximum (for gravel only)

20

footnote (1)

 

Footnote (1)            If the MD value is greater than the specification limit conform to Supplement 1010.

 

C.      General Requirements for Fine Aggregate.

1.       For fine Aggregate only calculate each individual sieve fraction soundness loss and ensure that the fractional size does not exceed the following:

13.0 percent for all surface courses, intermediate courses and any asphalt concrete course directly below an open graded friction course.

Statistical evaluation of data will be per Group List procedures.

 

703.06  Sand Cover (407 and 408).

A.     Furnish sand cover consisting of natural sand or sand manufactured from stone or ACBFS.

B.      Sieve analysis.

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

90 to 100

No. 50 (300 mm)

7 to 40

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 10

 

703.07  Mineral Filler.

A.     Furnish mineral filler consisting of limestone dust, portland cement, or other inert mineral matter.  Ensure that it is thoroughly dry and free from lumps.

B.      Sieve analysis.

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

No. 30 (600 mm)

100

No. 50 (300 mm)

95 to 100

No. 200 (75 mm)

65 to 100

 

703.08  Granulated Slag.

A.     Furnish Granulated Slag (GS) consisting of glassy, granular materials formed when molten blast furnace slag or electric-furnace slag is rapidly chilled, as by immersion in water.  The Department may reject material containing mill waste, cinders, large pieces of ungranulated slag, or other matter foreign to the production of slag in the normal operation of the blast furnace or electric furnace.

Furnish material of such nature that it will compact to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

B.      Sieve analysis.

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

2 inch (50 mm)

100

1 inch (25 mm)

85 to 100

No. 100 (150 mm)

0 to 15

 

703.10  Screenings.

A.     Furnish screenings for No. 10 size gravel, stone, or air-cooled slag.  Where crushed material is specified, ensure that it is crushed from material larger than the 1/2-inch (12.5 mm) sieve.

B.      Physical properties.

 

Maximum

Percent

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness

15

 

703.11  Structural Backfill for 603 Bedding and Backfill.  Furnish structural backfill for 603 bedding and backfill consisting of limestone, gravel, natural sand, sand manufactured from stone, foundry sand, ACBFS, GS, or RPCC.

Furnish ACBF Slag according to Supplement 1027.

The use of RPCC is permitted without wear testing or sodium soundness testing requirements if the Contractor provides information proving the material met this specification at the time of its original incorporation.  The use of RPCC is not permitted in conjunction with aluminum pipe or aluminum coated steel pipe.  Ensure that the RPCC use does not contain more than two percent steel.

Furnish Type 1 structural backfill that meets the gradations of Items 304, 411, or 617, except 0 to 20 percent may pass the P-200 sieve.  Furnish Type 3 structural backfill that meets the gradations of No. 57 or 67.

Reclaimed asphalt concrete is not allowed for any bedding or backfill materials.

Use foundry sand if the material meets these requirements and meets the requirements of the Ohio EPA, Division of Surface Water, Policy 400.007 “Beneficial use of Non-Toxic Bottom Ash, Fly Ash and Spent Foundry Sand and Other Exempt Waste,” and all other regulations.  Ten days before using foundry sand on the project, submit written permission from the Ohio EPA to the Engineer.  Instead of written permission from the Ohio EPA, the Contractor may elect to have an independent consultant pre-qualified by ODOT in remedial design environmental site assessment review the proposed usage.  The consultant will provide all documentation utilized to ensure that the proposed usage is according  to all Ohio EPA regulations.  Ensure that the consultant coordinates all EPA required meetings, documentation, and testing requirements.  Ensure that the consultant certifies this to the Department.

Do not use GS for Type 3 Structural Backfill.  Furnish granulated slag according to 703.08.

A.      Structural Backfill Type 1 and 3.

1.       Physical properties.

Percent of wear, Los Angeles test, maximum

   (CCS  or washed gravel)

50

Loss, sodium, sulfate soundness test, % maximum

15

Percent of fractured pieces (one or more faces), minimum (Type 3 only)

90

Deleterious substances shall not exceed the following:

 

Material Type

Maximum

Percent

Shale, shaly material

5.0

Chert, that disintegrates in 5 cycles of the soundness test

5.0

 

Ensure that the portion of the material passing through the No. 40 (425 mm) sieve has a maximum liquid limit of 25 and a maximum plastic index of 6.

Crush gravel for Type 3 from material retained on the 1/2 inch (12.5 mm) sieve.

B.      Structural Backfill Type 2.

1.       Furnish Type 2 structural backfill that meets the gradations of 703.05.A, 703.02.A, or one of the gradations below:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

2 1/2 inch (63 mm)

 

100

1 inch (25.0 mm)

 

70 to 100

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

100

 

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

80 to 100

 

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

60 to 100

25 to 100

No. 8 (2.36 mm)

45 to 95

 

No. 40 (425 mm)

 

10 to 50

No. 50 (300 mm)

7 to 55

 

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 15

5 to 15

 

2.       Physical properties:

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, percent maximum

15

Percent of wear, Los Angeles test, maximum

   (CCS  or gravel)

50

 

Ensure that the portion of the material passing through the No. 40 (425 mm) sieve has a maximum liquid limit of 25 and a maximum plastic index of 6.

703.13  Coarse Aggregate for Items 305, 451 and 452.  In addition to the requirements of 703.02, the following aggregate requirements apply.

Where gravel, crushed ACBFS or limestone is selected and the total combined quantity of the listed items is greater than 10,000 square yards (8000 m2), provide coarse aggregate in No. 57 or 67 size.  If the total combined quantity of the listed items is less than 10,000 square yards (8000 m2), ensure that the coarse aggregate is one of the following size:  No. 7, 78, 8, 57, or 67.

 

.If gravel or limestone No. 57 or 67 size is selected in either of the above cases, ensure that the coarse aggregate incorporated into the concrete meets 703.02 and is tested according to ASTM C 666, Procedure B.  Ensure that the area generated under the curve obtained by plotting the expansions of test specimens verses the number of test cycles do not exceed 2.05 at 350 or less cycles.

Ensure that the validity of results of freeze thaw-resistance testing is as outlined below:

Range of Area under Curve[1]

Status of Source Approval

0.00 to 1.00

Valid for two years from date approved[2]

1.01 to 2.05

Valid for one year from date approved[2]

2.06 to 4.00

Not Approved, one retest allowed[3]

> 4.00

Not Approved, no retesting allowed[3]

[1]  As measured at 350 cycles.

[2]  If a notable change in the properties of the aggregate originating from the affected source is determined from quality control testing, a retest of freeze-thaw resistance may be requested before the original expiration date.  The Laboratory will make the determination to retest.

[3]  Except as noted, the Department will not retest the material unless the producer of the material sends a written request to the Department with substantiation that significant changes in operation have been made (e.g., new processing equipment, material from a new ledge, etc.).

 

The Laboratory will maintain a list of approved sources.

703.14  Open-Hearth Steel Slag Aggregate Used for Item 304.  Provide OH slag according to the following additional requirements.

Recycled OH slag from Department or non-Department projects is not allowed.

A.      Deleterious Substances (soft pieces).  Deleterious substances include soft lime, lime oxide, or magnesia agglomerations or any foreign materials prone to rapid disintegration under construction processing and weathering conditions.

Furnish OH slag with less than 3 percent deleterious substances (soft pieces) by weight.  The Department will use Supplement 1029 (hand crushing of soft pieces) to determine the soft pieces.

Crushing of OH slag is not allowed.

B.      Identification of OH Slag.  Clear, definitive, and undisputable identification of the OH slag is required.

The producer will show the Department evidence that the material supplied is OH slag.  This information will consist of, but is not limited to, the following:

1.       Steel producer.

2.       Production dates.

3.       Production rates.

4.       Stockpiling dates.

5.       Type of steel produced.

6.       All known Department and non-Department projects where the material was previously used.

This identification of OH slag may be supplemented by other information approved by the Department or by using 10 years of good performance data.  Ensure that the producer submits to the Department projects where the OH slag has been used without expansion or tufa problems.  The Department will review the above projects as part of the identification approval process.

All OH slag not identified as OH slag will be considered BOF slag unless other wise identified.

C.      Tufa Performance Verified.  Tufa is a precipitate form of calcium carbonate that can clog up the underdrain systems.  Some OH slag sources clog up underdrain systems and some do not.  Tufa performance verification is based on field performance and Department’s inspection of the underdrain systems.

Tufa performance verification is required.

Ensure that the producer submits past projects that are at least 10 years old that used the proposed OH slag source to the Department.  Ensure that the producer supplies the Department with construction plans with the underdrains and underdrain outlets marked on the plans, or other suitable method, approved by the Department, showing the underdrain system.  Ensure that the producer marks the underdrain outlets in the field for inspection.  The Department will inspect the underdrain systems for tufa deposits.  If tufa deposits are found in the outlets or in the underdrain system, the Department will reject the OH slag source.

D.      Aging and Stockpiling Requirements.  Stockpile and age all OH slag as follows:

1.       Grade and stockpile the material into maximum size piles of 25,000 ton (23,000 metric tons).  Before and during the stock piling operation, add water to these materials to provide a uniform moisture content not less than their absorbed moisture.  Ensure that the stockpile is maintained in a moist condition during the required stockpiling period.

2.       Ensure that the producer mixes the stockpile when the outside surface of the pile has crusted over.  The Department will inspect the stockpile every 2 months to ensure no crusting occurs.  Do not mix frozen stockpile material.  Suspend the aging period when the stockpile is frozen for more than one month.

3.       Ensure that this aging period is at least 6 months in duration and starts over if any new material is added to the pile during the aging period.

E.      Expansion Testing.  After the aging and stock piling requirements are met, expansion testing is required.

Perform expansion testing according to Pennsylvania Department of Transportation PTM No. 130, the ODOT equivalent to this test or expansion testing acceptable to the Department.

Ensure that the producer hires an independent AASHTO accredited and Department approved laboratory to perform at least half of the expansion testing.  At the producer’s option, up to half of the required expansion testing may be performed by the producer’s laboratory.  The Laboratory will observe the expansion testing and approve each independent and producer laboratory.

Perform expansion testing for every 2500 tons (2300 metric tons) or fraction thereof of the material supplied.

The maximum allowable total expansion for each test is less than 0.50 percent.  If any one test fails in the stockpile, the Department will reject the entire stockpile.

When sampling for expansion, ensure that the producer notifies the Department at least 48 hours before the sampling.  The Department will verify that the sample came from the correct stockpile and take independent split samples, if required.

Submit the expansion test data and a suitably presented summary of the expansion test data to the Department for approval.  The Department reserves the right to perform independent testing to verify the laboratory results at any time.

The Department expansion test data takes precedence over the producer or independent laboratory expansion testing results in the event of a conflict.  The Department will make the final determination on all conflicting data.

If the material fails the expansion testing, stockpile the material for a minimum of 2 additional months from the date of last sampling and retest for expansion.  Only materials that pass the expansion test are approved for use.

703.15   Open-Hearth, Electric Arc Furnace, and Basic Oxygen Furnace Steel Slag Aggregate Used for Items 410, 411, and 617.  When using surface applications OH, EAF, and BOF slag, ensure that the slag meets the aging and stockpiling, deleterious substances, and crushing requirements of 703.14.  Recycled OH, EAF, or BOF slag from Department or non-Department projects may be used for surface applications.

When using non-surface application OH slag, ensure that the slag meets all requirements of 703.14.  BOF and EAF slag are not allowed for non-surface applications.

703.16  Suitable Materials for Embankment Construction.  Natural soil, natural granular material, granular material types, slag material, brick, shale, rock, random material, RACP, RPCC, or PCS as further defined below are suitable for use in embankment construction.  The Engineer will submit samples of soils not identified from the plan subsurface investigation, from borrow sources or materials appearing questionable in the field.

Furnish ACBFS according to Supplement 1027.

Furnish RPCC with the reinforcing steel cut to a maximum length of 1-inch (25 mm) outside the pieces.

Furnish OH, EAF, and BOF slag that are blended and according to 703.15.  Furnish OH slag, EAF slag, BOF slag, RPCC, and RACP that are completely blended with natural soil or natural granular material as follows:

1.  When using RACP, OH slag, or RPCC, make at least 30 percent of the blend natural soil or natural granular materials.

2.  When using BOF or EAF slag, make at least 50 percent of the blend natural soil or natural granular material.

3.  Ensure that pieces of RACP do not exceed 4 inches (100 mm) in the largest dimension.

Furnish coal completely blended with natural soil or natural granular materials.  Make at least 90 percent of the blend natural soil or natural granular materials.

A. Natural Soils.  Furnish natural soils as defined in 203.02.I and classified as Department Group Classifications A-4-a, A-4-b, A-6-a, A-6-b, and A-7-6 as further defined below:  Furnish soils with a maximum laboratory dry weight of at least 90 pounds per cubic foot (1450 kg/m3).

Do not use soils having a liquid limit in excess of 65 or soils identified as Department Group Classifications A-5, or A-7-5 in the work.

B. Granular Embankment Materials.  Furnish natural granular materials as defined in 203.02.H and classified as Department Group Classifications A-1-a, A-1-b, A-3, A-3-a, A-2-4, A-2-6, or A-2-7.

Do not use granular material classified as A-2-5.

C. Granular Material Types.  Furnish CCS, gravel, ACBFS, durable sandstone, durable siltstone, GS, or blended natural soil or natural granular materials with OH, BOF, EAF, or RPCC as detailed above.  Furnish durable sandstone and siltstone with a slake durability index greater than 90 percent according to ASTM D 4644.

Except for GS, furnish  the following gradations for the granular material types, by weight:

1.  Granular Material, Type A.  Furnish material having less than 25 percent by weight of the grains or particles passing the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve.

2.  Granular Material Type B.  For Item 204, furnish the gradation of Items 304, 411, or 617.  For Item 203, furnish the gradation of Items 304, 411, or 617 except 0 to 20 percent will be allowed to pass the No. 200 (75 μm) sieve.

3.  Granular Material Type C.  Furnish well graded material that meets the following gradation:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

3 inch (75 mm)

100

2 inch (50 mm)

70 to 90

1/2 inch (12.5 mm)

30 to 60

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 13

 

4.  Granular Material Type D.  Furnish the gradation of 100 percent passing the 8 inch (200 mm) sieve, less than 60 percent passing the 3 inch (76 mm) sieve, less than 40 percent passing the 3/4 inch (19 mm) sieve, and 0 to 20 percent passing the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve.

5.  Granular Material Type E.  Furnish any of the coarse aggregates from No. l through 67 inclusive on Table 703.01-1.

6.  Granular Material Type F.  Furnish material according to the following:

a.  Well graded material.

b.  A gradation with a top size from 8 inches (200 mm) to 3 inches (76 mm) and a bottom size of No. 200 (75 µm) sieve.

c.  An evenly graded material between the top and bottom size.

d.  Compactable, stable, and serves the intended use.

D. Shale.  Furnish shale as defined in 203.02 and as further defined below.  Ensure that the shale is tested for durability to determine whether the shale is hard or soft shale.  The Engineer will field test the shale according to the following:

1.  The Engineer will obtain a typical 6-inch (150 mm) diameter piece of shale.  If a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter sample cannot be obtained, then the shale is soft shale.

2.  The Engineer will place the shale in a bucket of water.  The Engineer will examine the deterioration or slaking after 48 hours.

3.  After 48 hours if the material has not deteriorated, then the shale will be broken down by hand pressure.  If the material retained on the 3/4 inch (19.0 mm) sieve is 75 percent or less, the shale materials are considered soft shale.

4.  If more than 75 percent of the shale is retained on the 3/4 inch (19.0 mm) sieve or when the material does not deteriorate, then the shale will be field tested for hardness.  The field test for hardness will consist of compacting the shale with a steel drum roller with a minimum compressive force of 500 pounds per lineal inch (57 kN/mm) of roller drum width.  Provide documentation to the Engineer to verify the steel drum meets the compressive force requirements.

a.  If more than 40 percent of the shale breaks down, by visual inspection, with six complete passes with a steel drum roller, then the shale is classified as soft shale.

b.  If less than 40 percent of the shale breaks down with six complete passes with a steel drum roller, by visual inspection, the material is considered hard shale.

703.17  Aggregate Materials for 304.  Furnish aggregate that is CCS, crushed gravel, crushed ACBFS, GS, or OH slag.  Ensure that the CCS, crushed gravel, crushed ACBFS, and OH slag meet the following gradation:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

2 inch (50 mm)

100

1 inch (25.0 mm)

70 to 100

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

50 to 90

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

30 to 60

No. 30 (600 mm)

9 to 33

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 15[1]

[1]           Furnish OH slag that has 0 to 10 percent passing through the No. 200 (75mm) sieve

 

Furnish GS  according to the requirements of 703.08.

Furnish ACBFS according to Supplement 1027.

Determine aggregate acceptance before incorporation into the work based on samples taken from stockpiles.

Furnish gravel used under Item 304 that is crushed from material retained on the 1/2 inch (12.5 mm) sieve.

Physical properties.

The portion of aggregate

passing the No. 40

(425 µm) sieve shall have a maximum liquid limit of 25 percent and a maximum plasticity index of 6.

X

X

X

 

X

703.14

 

 

 

 

X

703.08

 

 

 

X

 

Percent of

loss, sodium

soundness test,

Maximum

15%

X

X

X

 

X

Percent of

wear, Los

Angeles test,

Maximum

50%

X

X

 

 

 

Percent by weight,

Maximum 5%

chert which

disintegrates in

5 cycles of the

soundness test,

X

X

X

 

 

Percent by weight, Maximum 5% shale, shaly material,

X

X

X

 

 

Percent of

Fractured pieces (one or more faces),

Minimum 90%

X

X

X

 

 

 

Crushed Gravel

CCS

ACBFS

GS

OH Slag

 


703.18  Materials for Items 410, 411, and 617.  Furnish CCS, gravel, ACBFS, GS, OH slag, BOF slag, EAF slag, RPCC, or RACP for materials.

If RPCC and RACP are used, provide the following information:

1.       Specification item that the material was originally constructed under.

2.       The applicable material requirements of the original construction item.

If the original construction requirements meet or exceed the requirements of this specification, then the shale, sodium soundness and Los Angeles abrasion test for RACP and RPCC may be waived.  The plastic index and clay requirements are not required for RACP.  Use RPCC that is free of steel.

The Contractor may use OH slag, BOF slag, and EAF slag for surface course applications if the material is according   to 703.15.  Do not use BOF slag or EAF slag for non-surface course applications.  The Contractor may use OH slag for non-surface applications if it is according  to the requirements of 703.14.  Use ACBFS  according to Supplement 1027.

Furnish GS according to  703.08.

A.      Gradations.  Furnish for Items 617, 410, and 411 RACP materials according to the following gradation:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

1 1/2 inch (37.5 mm)

100

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

80 to 100

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

60 to 90

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

30 to 90

No. 30 (600 mm)

3 to 20

 

Except for GS and RACP, use the following gradations for Items 410, 411, and 617.

Furnish materials for Item 410  according to one of the following gradations:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

Type A

Type B

Type C

1 1/2 inch (37.5 mm)

100

100

Size No.

4 or 57

1 inch (25.0 mm)

90 to 100

75 to 100

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

60 to 100

60 to 100

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

40 to 60

35 to 75

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

15 to 30

30 to 60

 

Do not use RACP for Type C material.

Furnish materials for Item 411 according to the following gradation:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

1 1/2 inch (37.5 mm)

100

1 inch (25.0 mm)

75 to 100

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

60 to 100

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

35 to 75

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

30 to 60

No. 30 (600 mm)

7 to 30

No. 200 (75 mm)

3 to 15

 

Furnish materials for Item 617 according to the following gradation:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

1 inch (25.0 mm)

100

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

60 to 100

3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

35 to 75

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

30 to 60

No. 30 (600 mm)

9 to 33

No. 200 (75 mm)

0 to 15

 

B.      Physical properties.

Clay, 10%

maximum

X

 

 

[1]  Where the major portion of the material in a coarse aggregate, from a source on record at the Laboratory, has shown the characteristics of acquiring a mud-like condition when tested for soundness, test it for soundness and ensure that the maximum loss is 5 percent.  .

Percent of

wear, Los

Angeles test,

maximum

50%

X

 

 

Shale, 12%

maximum

 

 

X

Shale, 5%

maximum[1]

 

X

 

Percent of loss, sodium soundness test, maximum 15%

 

X

 

The fraction of these materials passing the No. 40 (425 mm) sieve has a maximum plasticity index of 6

 

X

 

Gravel used,

Portion retained

on a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve, 40% (one of more faces) minimum crushed

 

X

 

90%

Crushed (one or more faces),

minimum

 

 

X

 

410

411

617

 


703.19  Rock and Aggregate Materials for Item 601.

A.      Crushed Aggregate Slope Protection and Filter Aggregate for Dump Rock Fill.  Furnish crushed gravel, limestone, sandstone, RPCC, ACBFS, OH slag, BOF slag, or EAF slag for crushed aggregate slope protection and filter aggregate for dump rock fill.

The Contractor may use OH slag, BOF slag, and EAF slag for surface course applications if the material is according to 703.15.  Do not use BOF slag or EAF slag for non-surface course applications.  The Contractor may use OH slag for non-surface applications if it is according  to the requirements of 703.14.  Use ACBFS slag according to Supplement 1027.

Furnish No. 1 or 2 size, or according to the following gradation for crushed aggregate slope protection:

Sieve Size

Total Percent Passing

4 inch (100 mm)

100

3 1/2 inch (90 mm)

90 to 100

2 1/2 inch (63 mm)

25 to 90

1 1/2 inch (37.5 mm)

0 to 25

3/4 inch (19.0 mm)

0 to 10

 

For a filter for rock channel protection, use No. 3 or 4 size.

Physical properties.

Percent of wear, Los Angeles Test, maximum (limestone and gravel)

50

Loss, sodium sulfate soundness test, percent maximum, except for RPCC

15

Percent of fractured pieces, minimum (limestone and gravel)

90

Loss for RPCC, AASHTO T 103 Soundness of Aggregates by Freezing and Thawing

20[1]

[1]  Use Method C using 25 cycles.

 

B.      Dumped Rock Fill and Rock Channel Protection.  Furnish gravel, broken recycled portland cement concrete (RPCC), broken sandstone, broken siltstone, and broken limestone for dumped rock fill and rock channel protection.  Furnish sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that is free of laminations, seams, and fractures, or injury due to blasting.

Except for RPCC, test for soundness according to ASTM D 5240.  Use materials having a maximum 30 percent single slab loss and a maximum 20 percent cumulative loss..   Slab heights and lengths will be a minimum of 8 inches.  For RPCC, test for soundness according to AASHTO  103 as stated in 703.19.A. 

The Department may waive testing when the stone source has a known durability history.

Do not use thin, slab-like pieces, or any pieces having a dimension larger than 36 inches (1 m).  Do not use RPCC with reinforcing steel protruding more than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond the outside surface of the concrete pieces.

Furnish dumped rock fill and rock channel protection materials consisting of the four material types defined below:

1.       Type A material has at least 85 percent of the total material by weight larger than an 18-inch (0.5 m) but less than a 30-inch (0.8 m) square opening and at least 50 percent of the total material by weight larger than a 24-inch (0.6 m) square opening.  Furnish material smaller than an 18-inch (0.5 m) square opening that consists predominantly of rock spalls and rock fines, and that is free of soil.

2.       Type B material has at least 85 percent of the total material by weight larger than a 12-inch (0.3 m) but less than a 24-inch (0.6 m) square opening and at least 50 percent of the total material by weight larger than an 18-inch (0.5 m) square opening.  Furnish material smaller than a 12-inch (0.3 m) square opening that consists predominantly of rock spalls and rock fines, and that is free of soil.

3.       Type C material has at least 85 percent of the total material by weight larger than a 6-inch (150 mm) but less than an 18-inch (0.5 m) square opening and at least 50 percent of the total material by weight larger than a 12-inch (0.3 m) square opening.  Furnish material smaller than a 6-inch (150 mm) square opening that consists predominantly of rock spalls and rock fines, and that is free of soil.

4.       Type D material has at least 85 percent of the total material by weight larger than a 3-inch (75 mm) but less than a 12-inch (0.3 m) square opening and at least 50 percent of the total material by weight larger than a 6-inch (150 mm) square opening.  Furnish material smaller than a 3-inch (75 mm) square opening that consists predominantly of rock spalls and rock fines, and that is free of soil.