101 DEFINITIONS AND TERMS
101.01 General. These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, a requirement to provide cold-weather protection would be expressed as, “Provide cold-weather protection for concrete,” rather than “The Contractor shall provide cold-weather protection for concrete.” In the imperative mood, the subject “the Bidder” or “the Contractor” is understood.
All requirements to be performed by others have been written in the active voice. Sentences written in the active voice identify the party responsible for performing the action. For example, “The Engineer will determine the density of the compacted material.” Certain requirements of the Contractor may also be written in the active voice, rather than the active voice and imperative mood, if the sentence includes requirements for others in addition to the Contractor. For example, “After the Contractor provides initial written notice, the Engineer will revise the Contract as specified in 104.02.”
Sentences that define terms, describe a product or desired result, or describe a condition that may exist are written in indicative mood. These types of sentences use verbs requiring no action. For example, “The characteristics of the soils actually encountered in the subgrade may affect the quality of the cement and depth of treatment necessary.”
101.02 Abbreviations. The following abbreviations, when used in the Contract Documents, represent the full text shown.
AAN American Association of Nurserymen
AC Asphalt Cement (pavement), Alternating Current (traffic)
ACBF Air Cooled Blast Furnace slag (aggregate)
ACIA Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter (traffic controller)
ADT Average Daily Traffic
ADTT Average Daily Truck Traffic
AIC Amps Interrupting Capacity
ANFO Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil
AOS Apparent Opening Size (fabric)
ATFDB Asphalt treated Free Draining Base
AWG American Wire Gauge
BBR Bending Beam Rheometer (asphalt test)
BMP Best Management Practice (erosion)
BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace (aggregate)
BSG Bulk Specific Gravity
BTEX Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (a soil test)
BUSTR Bureau of Underground Storage Tank Regulations (Division of Fire Marshal)
C&MS Construction and Material Specifications
CAPWAP Case Pile Wave Analysis Program
CBAE Cut Back Asphalt Emulsion
CCRL Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory
CCS Crushed Carbonate Stone
CECI Contactors Erosion Control Inspector
CIE Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (illumination)
CPESC Certified Professional in Erosion and Sediment Control
CRS Cationic Rapid Set (asphalt emulsion)
CSS Cationic Slow Set (asphalt emulsion)
CVN Charpy V-notch (steel test)
CWT Hundred Weight (100 lbs)
DC Direct Current
DCA District Construction Administrator
DDD District Deputy Director
DET District Engineer of Tests
DGE District Geotechnical Engineer
DLS Data Logging System (traffic markings)
DRC Dry Rodded Condition (asphalt test)
DSR Dynamic Shear Rheometer (asphalt test)
DZA Deficient Zone Average (concrete test)
EAF Electric Arc Furnace
EDA Earth Disturbing Activity
EQS Exceptional Quality Solids (compost)
FAA Fine Aggregate Angularity (asphalt aggregate)
FCM Fracture Critical Member (steel test)
FRP Fiber Reinforced Polymer
GGBFS Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
GS Granulated Slag
HDPE High Density Polyethylene
HFRS High Float Rapid Setting (emulsion)
HMWM High Molecular Weight Methacrylate
IPS International Pipe Standard
IZEU Inorganic Zinc Epoxy Urethane
JMF Job Mix Formula
LED Light Emitting Diode
LWT Loaded Wheel Test (asphalt test)
MBF Thousand Board Feet (wood)
MC Medium Cure (asphalt emulsion)
MCB Microchannel Bus (traffic controller)
MMK Blaw-Knox Materials Management Kit
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor (traffic controller)
MPI Magnetic Particle Inspection (steel test)
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
MSG Maximum Specific Gravity (asphalt)
MTD Maximum Theoretical Density (asphalt)
NOI Notice of Intent
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
OH Open Hearth (aggregate)
OHWM Ordinary High Water Mark
OMM Office of Materials Management (the Lab)
OWPCA Ohio Water Pollution Control Act
OZEU Organic Zinc Epoxy Urethane
PAT Project Average Thickness (concrete test)
PAV Pressure Aging Vessel (asphalt test)
PB Polybutylene (conduit)
PCC Portland Cement Concrete
PCS Petroleum Contaminated Soil
PDA Pile Dynamic Analysis (steel piling)
PE Polyethylene (conduit)
PG Performance Grade (asphalt test)
pH Potential of Hydrogen
PLS Pure Live Seed
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
QA Quality Assurance
QC Quality Control
QCFS Quality Control Fabricator Specialist (structures)
QCP Quality Control Program, or Quality Control Points (steel test)
QCQC Quality Control Qualification Committee
RACP Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement
RAP Recycled Asphalt Pavement
RC Rapid Cure (asphalt emulsion)
REA Rural Electrification Administration
RFI Radio Frequency Interference (traffic controller)
RH Relative Humidity
RMS Root Mean Square (traffic controller)
RPCC Recycled Portland Cement Concrete
RPM Raised Pavement Marker (traffic)
RS Rapid Set (asphalt emulsion)
RTFO Rolling Thin-Film Oven (asphalt test)
SBA Styrene Butadiene Amene
SBR Styrene Butadiene Rubber
SBS Styrene Butadiene Styrene
SCD Standard Construction Drawing
SF Standard Fabricated members (structures)
SI International System of Units (Metric)
SMA Stone Matrix Asphalt
SPD Surge Protection Device (traffic controller)
SPST Single Pole / Single Throw (traffic controller)
SS Slow Set (asphalt emulsion)
SSD Saturated Surface Dry (aggregate)
SSPC Society for Protective Coatings
SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
TMPTA Tri-methyolpropane Tri-acrylate (paint)
TNP Total Neutralizing Power
TODS Tourist-Oriented Directional Signs
TSEC Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control
TSR Tensile Strength Ratio (asphalt test)
UF Unique Fabricated members (structures)
VA Verification Acceptance
VAC Volts Alternating Current
VCA Volume of Coarse Aggregate (asphalt test)
VECP Value Engineering Change Proposal
VMA Voids in the Mineral Aggregate
VME VersaModule Eurocard (traffic controller)
WDT Watchdog Timer
WEAP Wave Equation Analysis (steel piling)
WPS Welding Procedure Specification (steel test)
WZRPM Work Zone Raised Pavement Marker (traffic)
XCU Explosion, Collapse and Underground
101.03 Definitions. The following terms or pronouns, when used in the Contract Documents, are defined as follows:
Advertisement. The public announcement, as required by law, inviting Bids for Work to be performed or materials to be furnished.
Award. The written acceptance by the Director of a Bid.
Bid. The offer of a Bidder, on the prescribed form properly signed and guaranteed, to perform the Work and to furnish the labor and materials at the prices quoted.
Bid Documents. The Bid Documents include the Invitation for Bids, Addenda, Proposal, Expedite file, contract form and required bonds, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, Special Provisions, general and detailed plans, Plan notes, standard construction drawings identified in the Plans, notice to contractor, and any other document designated by the Department as a Bid Document, all of which constitute one instrument.
Bidder. An individual, firm, or corporation submitting a Bid for the advertised Work, acting directly or through the duly authorized representative, and qualified as provided in ORC 5525.02 to 5525.09.
Bridge. A structure, including supports, erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water, a highway, or a railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads and having a length measured along the center of roadway of 10 feet (3.048 m) or more between undercopings of abutments or extreme limits of openings for multiple boxes.
A. Length. The length of a bridge structure is the over‑all length measured along the centerline of the roadway surface.
B. Roadway Width. The clear width measured at right angles to the longitudinal centerline of the bridge between the bottom of curbs or guard timbers or, in the case of multiple heights of curbs, between the bottoms of the lower risers. For curb widths of 1 foot (0.3 m) or less, the roadway width is measured between parapets or railings.
Calendar Day or Day. Every day shown on the calendar.
Certified Test Data. A test report from a manufacturer’s or an independent laboratory approved by the Director listing actual test results of samples tested for compliance with specified Department requirements. The Department will accept certified test data from manufacturers’ laboratories if their products have been used satisfactorily on prior Department contracts and their test data has been confirmed. Include a statement that the test data furnished is representative of the material furnished to a Department project or to a supplier. The report is identified by number or date and identifies the Department project or supplier to which the material is shipped. Submit reports signed by a person having legal authority to act for the manufacturer or independent laboratory.
Change Order. A written order issued by the Director to the Contractor, covering changes to the terms and conditions, plans and/or quantities, within or beyond the scope of the Contract and establishing the basis of payment and time adjustments for the work affected by the changes.
Claims. Disputes that are not settled through Steps 1 and 2 of the Dispute Resolution and Administrative Claim Process. The Dispute becomes a Claim when the Contractor submits a Notice of Intent to File a Claim.
Completion Date. The date, as shown in the Contract Documents, on which the Work contemplated shall be completed.
Construction Limits. These limits must encompass all Work. This includes removals, room for construction equipment to complete work, site access, etc.
Contract. The written agreement between the Department and the Contractor setting forth the obligations of the parties, including, but not limited to, the performance of the Work and the basis of payment.
Contract Bond. The approved forms of security, executed by the Contractor and its Sureties, guaranteeing complete execution of the Work as required by the Contract Documents and the payment of all legal debts pertaining to the construction of the Project which security shall comply with and be subject to ORC 5525.16 and 5525.13, and related provisions.
Contract Documents. The Contract Documents include the Invitation for Bids, Addenda, Proposal, contract form and required bonds, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, Special Provisions, general and detailed plans, Plan notes, standard construction drawings identified in the Plans, notice to contractor, Change Orders, Supplemental Agreements, Extra Work Contracts, and any other document designated by the Department as a Contract Document, all of which constitute one instrument.
Contract Item (Pay Item). A specifically described unit of Work for which a price is provided in the Contract.
Contract Price. The amount of compensation bid by the Contractor for a Contract Item in the Proposal or the amount of compensation established for a Contract Item added or modified pursuant to the Contract Documents.
Contract Time. The number of workdays or calendar days, including authorized adjustments, allowed for completion of the Project. When a specified Completion Date is shown in the Contract Documents instead of the number of workdays or calendar days, completion of the Project shall occur on or before that date. Specified Completion Date and Calendar Day Contracts shall be completed on or before the day indicated even when that date is a Saturday, Sunday, or holiday.
Contractor. The individual, firm, or corporation contracting with the Department for performance of prescribed Work, acting directly or through a duly authorized representative and qualified under the provisions of ORC 5525.02 to 5525.09 inclusive, and any amendments thereto.
County. The designated county in which the Work specified is to be done.
Culvert. Any structure not classified as a Bridge that provides an opening under the roadway.
Department. The Department of Transportation, State of Ohio.
Director. Administrative head of the Department appointed by the Governor.
Disputes. Disagreements, matters in question and differences of opinion between the Department’s personnel and the Contractor.
Engineer. Duly authorized agent of the Department acting within the scope of its authority for purposes of engineering and administration of the Contract.
Equipment. All machinery and equipment, together with the necessary supplies for upkeep and maintenance, and also tools and apparatus necessary for the proper construction and acceptable completion of the Work.
Extra Work. An item of Work not provided for in the Contract as awarded but found essential to the satisfactory completion of the Contract within its intended scope.
Extra Work Contract. A Contract concerning the performance of Work or furnishing of materials involving Extra Work. Such Extra Work may be performed at agreed prices or on a force account basis as provided in ORC 5525.14.
Fabricator. The individual, firm, or corporation that fabricates structural metals or prestressed concrete members as an agent of the Contractor.
Final Inspector. An Engineer appointed by the DDD who inspects the completed Work and accepts it if it complies with the Contract Documents.
Inspector. The Engineer’s authorized representative assigned to make detailed inspections of Contract performance.
Invitation for Bids. The invitation for Proposals for all Work on which Bids are required. Such Proposal will indicate with reasonable accuracy the quantity and location of the Work to be done or the character and quality of the material to be furnished and the time and place of the opening of Proposals.
Laboratory. The testing laboratories of the Department, including the Office of Materials Management located at 1600 West Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio, and various District testing facilities.
Materials. Any materials or products specified for use in the construction of the Project and its appurtenances.
Partnering. A collaborative process for project cooperation and communication meant to achieve effective and efficient contract performance and completion of the Project within budget, on schedule, safely and with requisite quality in accordance with the contract.
Plans. The drawings, standard construction drawings and supplemental drawings provided by the Department that show the location, character, dimensions, and details of the Work.
Prebid Question. A written inquiry submitted by a prospective bidder.
Profile Grade. The trace of a vertical plane intersecting the top surface of the proposed wearing surface, usually along the longitudinal centerline of the roadbed. Profile grade means either elevation or gradient of such trace according to the context.
Project Limits. Project limits are points on the mainline centerline of construction where the proposed improvement, as described in the project description on the Title Sheet (excluding incidental construction), begins and ends
Project Right-of-Way. That portion of the Right-of-Way between the beginning and end of the Project.
Project. The specific section of the highway together with all appurtenances and Work to be performed thereon under the Contract.
Proposal. The approved form on which the Department requires Bids to be prepared and submitted for the Work.
Proposal Guaranty. The security furnished with a Bid to guarantee that the Bidder will enter into the Contract if its Bid is accepted.
Questionnaire. The specified forms on which the Contractor shall furnish required information as to its ability to perform and finance the Work required under ORC 5525.01.
Reasonably Close Conformity. Reasonably close conformity means compliance with reasonable and customary manufacturing and construction tolerances where working tolerances are not specified. Where working tolerances are specified, reasonably close conformity means compliance with such working tolerances. Without detracting from the complete and absolute discretion of the Engineer to insist upon such tolerances as establishing reasonably close conformity, the Engineer may accept variations beyond such tolerances as reasonably close conformity where they will not materially affect the value or utility of the Work and the interests of the Department.
Registered Engineer. An engineer registered with the Ohio State Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Surveyors to practice professional engineering in the State of Ohio
Registered Surveyor. A surveyor registered with the Ohio State Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Surveyors to practice professional surveying in the State of Ohio.
Right-of-Way. A general term denoting land, property, or interest therein, usually in a strip, acquired for or devoted to a highway.
Road. A general term denoting a public way for purposes of vehicular travel, including the entire area within the Right-of-Way, as defined in ORC 5501.01.
Roadbed. The graded portion of a highway within top and side slopes, prepared as a foundation for the pavement structure and shoulder.
Roadside. The areas between the outside edges of the shoulders and the Right-of-Way boundaries. Unpaved median areas between inside shoulders of divided highways and infield areas of interchanges are included.
Roadside Development. Those items necessary to the highway that provide for the preservation of landscape materials and features; the rehabilitation and protection against erosion of all areas disturbed by construction through seeding, sodding, mulching, and the placing of other ground covers; such suitable planting; and other improvements as may increase the effectiveness and enhance the appearance of the highway.
Roadway. The portion of a highway within limits of construction.
Shop Drawings. The drawings provided by the Contractor or Supplier that describe any portion of the Work that will remain in place permanently.
Shoulder. The portion of the roadway contiguous to the traveled way for accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use, and for lateral support of base and surface courses.
Sidewalk. That portion of the roadway primarily constructed for the use of pedestrians.
Signatures on Contract Documents. All signatures on Contract Documents must meet the requirements of 102.06.
Special Provisions. Additions and revisions to the standard and Supplemental Specifications covering conditions peculiar to an individual Project.
Specifications. The directions, provisions, and requirements contained herein as supplemented by the Supplemental Specifications and Special Provisions.
State. The State of Ohio acting through its authorized representative.
Street. A general term denoting a public way for purpose of vehicular travel, including the entire area within the Right-of-Way.
Structures. Bridges, culverts, catch basins, drop inlets, retaining walls, cribbing, manholes, endwalls, buildings, sewers, service pipes, underdrains, foundation drains, and other features that may be encountered in the Work and not otherwise classed herein.
Subcontractor. An individual, firm, or corporation to whom the Contractor sublets part of the Contract to be performed on the job site, who prior to such undertaking receives the written consent of the Director, and who is qualified under ORC 5525.02 through 5525.09 inclusive.
Subgrade. The portion of a Roadbed upon which the pavement structure and shoulders are constructed.
Substructure. All of that part of the structure below the bearings of simple and continuous spans, skewbacks of arches, and tops of footings of rigid frames, together with backwalls and wings.
Superintendent. The Contractor’s authorized representative in responsible charge of the Work.
Superstructure. The entire structure except the Substructure.
Supplement. A list of requirements for fabrication plants, methods of test, or other miscellaneous requirements that are maintained on file in the Office of the Director.
Supplemental Agreement. A written agreement executed by the Contractor and by the Director covering necessary alterations.
Supplemental Specifications. Detailed specifications supplemental to or superseding these Specifications.
Surety. The corporation, partnership, or individual, other than the Contractor, executing a bond furnished by the Contractor.
Titles (or Headings). The titles or headings of the sections and subsections herein are intended for convenience of reference and shall not be considered as having any bearing on their interpretation.
Waters of the United States. Waters that are under the jurisdiction of the Corps of Engineers under the Clean Water Act as defined by 33 CFR Ch. II Part 328, which as applied to Ohio means: the Ohio River and Lake Erie and any other river, stream, creek, lake, pond, or wetland that drains directly or indirectly into the Ohio River or Lake Erie.
Work. All labor, materials, equipment, tools, transportation, supplies, and other incidentals and all tasks that comprise the project or any portion thereof, as described by the Contract Documents.
Work Limits. Work Limits are the extreme limits of the contractor’s responsibility on a project, including all temporary and incidental construction, with the exception of work zone traffic control devices required for maintenance of traffic.
Workday. A calendar day that the Contractor normally works.
Working Drawings. Stress sheets, shop drawings, erection plans, falsework plans, installation plans, certified drawings, frame work plans, cofferdam plans, bending diagrams for reinforcing steel, or any other supplementary plans or similar data that the Contractor is required to submit.
101.04 Interpretations. In order to avoid cumbersome and confusing repetition of expressions in these Specifications, it is provided that whenever anything is, or is to be, done, if, as, or, when, or where “contemplated, required, determined, directed, specified, authorized, ordered, given, designated, indicated, considered necessary, deemed necessary, permitted, reserved, suspended, established, approval, approved, disapproved, acceptable, unacceptable, suitable, accepted, satisfactory, unsatisfactory, sufficient, insufficient, rejected, or condemned,” it shall be understood as if the expression were followed by the words “by the Engineer” or “to the Engineer.”