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Mine Subsidence in Ohio

Diary of an Abandoned Underground
Mine Subsidence Remediation:
Jackson County State Route 32

February 1999 Journal

 Concrete Pavement
(Click on photo for larger version.)  In only eight hours, Kokosing crews had poured more than 1,000 cubic yards of concrete, completing the paving on half the westbound driving and passing lanes 2/10/99 
  
 
Smoothing Concrete Pavement
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Kokosing crews smooth out the concrete driving surface   2/10/99 
  
 
Concrete Paving
(Click on photo for larger version.)  The view from behind Kokosing's concrete paver, which paves two full lanes at a time  2/10/99 
  
 
Concrete Paver
(Click on photo for larger version.)  The view from in front of Kokosing's concrete paver  2/10/99 
  
 
Concrete Dump Truck
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Concrete being dumped from a dump truck onto a conveyor belt that leads to the concrete paver 2/10/99 
  
 
Steel Baskets
(Click on photo for larger version.)  The westbound lanes prior to paving.  The green metal pieces are called "baskets."  They basically act as expansion joints for the concrete. 2/10/99 
  
 
Trucks with Stone
(Click on photo for larger version.) Stone is being brought in to bring the project up to subgrade 1/26/98 
  
 
Stone Fill
(Click on photo for larger version.) Another shot of the stone being trucked in to bring the project up to subgrade 1/26/98 
  
 
Rutted Mud Waste
(Click on photo for larger version.) This photo was taken at one of the "waste" sites, an area where unfit fill material is dumped.  To give you an idea of how deep those muddy ruts really are, the peak of one of the ruts would hit the average-sized person at around knee level  1/25/99 
  
 
Removing Mud
(Click on photo for larger version.) Kokosing crews spent this morning (1/25) removing muddy fill material.   A layer of gravel will be placed on top of the fill material, which will allow crews to resume the filling operation. 
  
 
Mud!
(Click on photo for larger version.) Now that's a lot of mud!  This photo was taken this morning (1/25) approximately 200 feet east of the western end of the project.  The bulldozer is on top of what will be the westbound lanes.  The dump truck carrying rock is on top of what will be the eastbound lanes.   
  
 
Removing Coal
(Click on photo for larger version.) Kokosing crews continue removing coal.  Today, December 28, is expected to be the last day of excavation.  After today, Kokosing crews are expected to focus on backfilling only  12/28/98 
  
 
Exposed Voids
(Click on photo for larger version.)  What you're seeing is a series of voids with the tops of the voids (mine tunnels) removed. These voids were found in the westbound lanes about 200 feet east of Kisor Road.  The black mounds that remain are the pillars between the mine tunnels.   Each pillar is about 6 feet high and 8 feet wide.  It's about 22 feet between pillars.  The spaces between the pillars are mine tunnels  12/23/98 
  
 
Exposed Tunnels
(Click on photo for larger version.)  This is a different view of the same tunnels pictured above 12/23/98 
  
 
Mine Timbers
(Click on photo for larger version.)  If you look very closely inside this void found underneath the eastbound lanes approximately 250 feet east of Kisor Road, you can see the timbers that support the top of the mine void  12/23/98 
  
 
Soil Backfill
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Backfilling continues in the eastbound lanes at the far eastern end of the project  12/23/98 
  
 
Large Void
(Click on photo for larger version.)  This large void extended underneath the eastbound and westbound lanes of S.R. 32 at the intersection of Kisor Road 12/22/98 
  
 
Excavation
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Kokosing crews continue to excavate in the westbound lanes 12/17/98 
  
 
Coal Excavation
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Kokosing crews excavate coal in the eastbound lanes 12/17 
  
 
Rocky Bauer
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Project inspector Rocky Bauer peers inside one of the voids discovered underneath the westbound lanes at the western end of the project.  See the photograph below to see what Rocky saw inside the void 12/17 
  
 
Timber Mine Ties
(Click on photo for larger version.)  If you look closely at the bottom of the photograph, you can see some old timbers that were used to make rails for the mine carts that the miners used to transport coal in and out of the mines 12/17 
  
 
Backfill to West
(Click on photo for larger version.) This photo shows the view of the eastbound lanes looking toward the west.   This is a portion of the area that Kokosing crews have backfilled 12/15/98 
  
 
Backfill to East
(Click on photo for larger version.) This photo shows the view of the eastbound lanes looking toward the east.   Kokosing crews are continuing to backfill.  You can also see a dump truck hauling away excavated material from the westbound lanes while the trackhoe in the far background excavates in the eastbound lanes  12/15/98 
  
 
Void with Timber
(Click on photo for larger version.) This void was discovered underneath the eastbound lanes.  It's about 4 feet high.  If you look closely at the left side of the void, you can see the timber supporting the top of the mine 12/11/98 
  
 
Trackhoe Excavation
(Click on photo for larger version.)  The roadway started to collapse when Kokosing crews attempted to use a trackhoe to expose a mine void 12/11/98 
 

 
Steve Speakman
(Click on photo for larger version.)  In an attempt to show the relative size of the voids, Jackson County Highway Maintenance Worker Steve Speakman stands next to the void uncovered 12/9 approximately 295 feet east of the start of the project area near County Road 38.  The dump truck above the void is driving on the westbound lanes.  The void extends underneath the eastbound and westbound lanes and the median 12/9/98
 

Big Dozer
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Another size comparison...To the right of the void are a bulldozer, a trackhoe and a dump truck.   If you look very closely, you can see Kokosing employee Guy Waldron standing beside the bulldozer 12/9/98 
  
 
Excavating for Voids
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Crews dig for voids along the shoulder of the westbound lanes 12/4/98 
  
 
Big Trench
(Click on photo for larger version.)  This 18-foot-deep trench is what's left of part of the eastbound berm and driving lane after several days of excavation 12/3/98 
  
 
Beginning Excavation
(Click on photo for larger version.)  Contractor removes pavement to begin excavation of mine voids under highway surface 11/30/98

Friday, February 26
Kokosing crews are pouring concrete today to finish making the connection between Kisor Road and S.R. 32.  After Kisor Road is done, all of the concrete pouring will be completed.

Crews are also moving dirt up against the concrete berms today to create a smooth transition between the concrete berms and the edge of the roadway.

If the weather holds out this weekend, crews will seal the joints in the concrete.  They will also work on cleaning up the pavement.
 
 
Thursday, February 25
Crews finished pouring the last of the concrete shoulders today.  What fantastic news.  They also worked on pavement repairs and tying Kisor Road into the new section of S.R. 32.  Crews will work tomorrow and through the weekend so the road can be reopened to traffic as quickly as possible.  Please frequently check this site for updates.  Early next week there's likely to be an announcement about when the route will be reopened to traffic.
 
 
Wednesday, February 24
Today has been a very productive day on the project as far as the concrete pouring is concerned.  ODOT and Kokosing personnel will stay as long as it takes today to finish pouring the concrete on the eight-foot outside shoulder of the eastbound lanes.  Once that is completed, they will have only about 1,200 feet of berm left to pour.  If the weather cooperates tomorrow, crews will finish pouring the four-foot inside shoulder of the eastbound lanes.  

In addition to pouring the concrete berm tomorrow, Kokosing crews are also expected to work on repairing pavement damaged during the project.   According to Materials Controller Supervisor Rocky Bauer, the pavement repairs will   require approximately 120 yards of concrete.  Crews will also spend part of the day tomorrow working to tie Kisor Road into the new section of S.R. 32 and working on preparing the median.

Amidst the many activities of the project, crews also spent some time this week dressing up the outside of the westbound lanes to prepare the area for seeding and mulching, one of the last steps of the project!  It looks like the road will be reopened to traffic in mid-March as planned.
 
 
Tuesday, February 23
Kokosing crews are currently repairing some pavement in the westbound lanes just east of the project area that was damaged during the project.  Hauling heavy loads of dirt and stone amounts to lots of wear and tear on the existing roadway.

Within the project, crews are grading and ditching along the outside of the westbound lanes.  They are also sawing a center line joint in the concrete of the eastbound lanes.

Another crew is setting "baskets" (metal devices that function like expansion joints) along the outside shoulder of the eastbound lanes in preparation for pouring concrete tomorrow, weather permitting.  It may be too cold to start pouring early in the morning, but it's hoped that crews can do several hours of pouring tomorrow to get this project done as quickly as possible.
 
 
Monday, February 22
Cold temperatures will definitely have a chilling impact on the project this week.  Kokosing crews will not be able to pour concrete until the temperatures rise significantly.  If the weather forecasters are correct, it will probably be Thursday or Friday before it is warm enough to pour concrete.  According to ODOT Project Inspector Dave Walton, there's still about six days of concrete work left to do.  Half of the inside berm and the entire outside berm of the eastbound lanes still need to be poured.  Crews will also have to repair some pavement that was damaged during the project.  The repair work will include cutting out the damaged pavement and replacing it with concrete.  Because the concrete work has been delayed, it's possible that the route will not reopen to traffic until mid-March.

Today, crews are continuing to tie up loose ends.  They are removing the plastic and straw blankets from the cured concrete and continuing to dress up the shoulders within the project area.
 
 
Friday, February 19
Kokosing crews had a productive day today thanks to some surprisingly mild weather.  Crews removed a water line underneath the roadway and then topped off the hole with concrete.  Early on in the project, a water line had to be relocated.  Although a new line was installed, the old one had been left underneath the roadway.  Crews also poured concrete at the intersection of State Route 32 and Kisor Road to complete the tie in between the two roads.  "Baskets" (metal devices that function like expansion joints) were also placed on the outside berm of the eastbound lanes to prepare for paving of the berm next week.  Crews also cleaned up the job site by sweeping dirt off the existing roadway and cleaning around guardrail.

Crews will not work this weekend because of the extremely cold temperatures.  However, ODOT officials hope it will be possible to pour the concrete on the outside shoulder of the eastbound lanes Monday.  It will depend upon the weather.  Crews have only one day of pouring left to do.
 
 
Thursday, February 18
Kokosing crews finished pouring the concrete on the inside shoulder of the westbound lanes today, so all of the concrete work has been completed on the westbound lanes.  Crews started pouring the concrete on the inside shoulder of the eastbound lanes today.  They got about halfway done.  They couldn't finish pouring the inside shoulder of the eastbound lanes today because the concrete hasn't cured yet on the east end of the eastbound lanes.

Because of the extremely cold temperatures, crews won't be able to finish the concrete work this week.  If the forecast is right, they won't be able to finish pouring the concrete until Tuesday when the temperatures go up.   Tomorrow, crews will be sawing the concrete joints, grading and doing other detail work.
 
 
Wednesday, February 17
Despite some light rain, Kokosing crews are pouring the concrete on the outside shoulder of the westbound lanes.   They expect to complete that shoulder today.  Tomorrow, weather permitting, crews will be pouring the four-foot shoulder on the inside of the westbound lanes.

The concrete on the eastbound lanes will not be fully cured until Saturday.  As a result, crews will not pour the shoulders for the eastbound lanes until next week, weather permitting.  After the concrete work is completed, much of the final work on the project, such as guardrail installation, won't be as dependent on the weather.
 
 
Tuesday, February 16
The sunny, moderately warm weather was a friend to the Kokosing crews yesterday as they finished pouring concrete on the eastbound lanes.  They finished pouring at around 2 p.m. yesterday.  What good news!  Now all four lanes have been paved with the shoulders left to go.

Today, crews are removing the straw and black plastic from the westbound lanes.  Later on, they will be setting "baskets" (metal devices that function like expansion joints) on the outside shoulder of the westbound lanes.  If the weather cooperates, Kokosing crews will start paving the outside shoulder of the westbound lanes tomorrow.  They are scheduled to pave the inside shoulder of the westbound lanes Friday or Saturday while the concrete on the eastbound lanes continues to cure.

Weather could be a factor later this week, rain and/or snow is in the forecast for Friday or Saturday.  That could delay the concrete pouring.   We'll keep you updated.
 
 
Friday, February 12
Kokosing crews stopped concrete work at around 5:30 p.m. yesterday.  They then worked until about midnight in the balmy weather cutting the joints of the concrete and covering it with straw and plastic to keep the heat in.

Crews finished paving the westbound lanes and paved approximately 1,300 feet of the eastbound lanes.  There's still about 1,700 feet of the eastbound lanes left to pave.

The project will likely be shut down for the weekend because of snow and cold temperatures.  However, crews should be able to resume paving Monday.

ODOT officials are striving to have the road reopened to traffic between March 7 and March 10.
 
 
Thursday, February 11
Kokosing crews have started their second day of concrete pouring.  They were tremendously productive yesterday.  They poured approximately 1,710 cubic yards of concrete, enough to cover approximately three-fourths of the westbound driving and passing lanes.  Crews poured concrete until around 7:30 yesterday evening.  They worked until around 3 a.m. cutting the joints and covering the concrete with straw and plastic to keep the concrete as warm as possible.

Today, crews are striving to finish pouring concrete in the westbound lanes.  After that, they'll begin pouring concrete in the eastbound lanes, working from west to east.  High winds could be a problem today.  As you can imagine, it would be very difficult to cover the poured concrete with straw and plastic if the wind is blowing hard.  If high winds or rain arise, pouring will must likely be suspended.  Weather permitting, concrete pouring will continue through around 7 p.m.
 
 
Wednesday, February 10--4:30 p.m.
The concrete pouring is going very well.  By 3 p.m., Kokosing crews had poured more than 1,000 cubic yards of concrete, and it looks like they might pour an additional 400 to 500 cubic yards before they are done for the day.  Right now, they are about halfway done paving the westbound lanes.  They hope to finish the westbound passing and driving lanes tomorrow.  It looks like the weather might be bad Friday and through this weekend, so crews might not get to start on the eastbound lanes immediately after finishing the westbound lanes.  The concrete that was poured today will take two to three days to cure.  After it is cured, crews can start pouring the berms and shoulders.  Kokosing officials estimated it will take 10 days to complete the concrete work, which should be on target if the weather cooperates.

Concrete pouring will continue until about 6 p.m. today.   After that, crews will cover the concrete with plastic and straw to help keep the concrete warm, which will help it cure faster. 

Please take a look at the photos that were posted today.   The paving operation is fascinating!
 
 
Wednesday, February 10
Early this morning, Kokosing crews started pouring concrete.  They started on the east end of the project and are heading west in the westbound lanes.  Approximately 600 feet of roadway has been paved as of 9:40 a.m.  Because of the massive amount of concrete that will be needed for this project, two concrete companies are supplying the concrete.  Crews have encountered some problems this morning, but nothing that will stop progress on the job.  More information will be provided as it becomes available.  Photos of the concrete pouring will be posted this afternoon or tomorrow morning.
 
 
Tuesday, February 9
Another beautiful day for construction.  Kokosing crews are still fine grading the lanes in preparation for the application of the concrete driving surface.  ODOT crews from the Jackson County Highway Maintenance Facility are on the project today removing surplus materials and basically clearing the way for the concrete.  If all goes as planned, concrete pouring will begin tomorrow.  With highs in the 60s, the weather should be perfect for the job.  Unfortunately, it looks like tomorrow might be the only good day to pour concrete for quite a while.  The forecast is calling for rain on Thursday and highs only in the 20s for the weekend.  According to ODOT Project Inspector Dave Walton, concrete pouring may have to been suspended after tomorrow if the weather is going to be bad.  He said they'll make a decision tomorrow afternoon about whether to proceed with the concrete pouring Thursday.
 
 
Monday, February 8
Kokosing crews worked Saturday but were rained out yesterday.  They will finish putting down the last of the stone base today.  Crews have also been working on fine grading the lanes in preparation for the application of the concrete driving surface.  The eastbound lanes are done.  Crews are working on fine grading the westbound lanes today.  The fine grading is expected to take approximately two days.

Kokosing and ODOT are still shooting for Wednesday to begin pouring concrete.  They are expected to pour the eastbound lanes first.  While the concrete is being poured in the eastbound lanes, Kokosing crews will continue fine grading in the westbound lanes.  ODOT officials think it will take four to five days to pour the concrete for the eastbound and westbound lanes, not including the shoulders.

The weather is supposed to be extremely mild through Wednesday or Thursday.  Some local weather forecasters are calling for highs near 70 on Wednesday.   You can't get much better weather for concrete than that.  However, temperatures are expected to drop into the 30s Friday and stay in the 30s through the weekend.  That could have an impact on the progress of the project.
 
 
Friday, February 5
Sorry, no update available today.
 
 
Thursday, February 4
Officials from ODOT and Kokosing gathered together in the S.R. 32 field office this morning to discuss the progress of the project. 

*  Today, crews are continuing to put down the layer of stone that will serve as the base for the concrete driving surface. 

*  Kokosing officials estimate crews will finish putting down the stone this Saturday, and then they will begin readying the stone base for the application of the concrete driving surface.

*  The majority of the meeting focused on issues involving the application of the concrete driving surface.  Representatives from two local concrete companies joined ODOT and Kokosing officials to discuss the manufacture and delivery of the concrete.  Because February isn't normally the best time of year to pour concrete, the concrete companies and Kokosing will go to great lengths to make sure the concrete stays warm enough to cure.  For example, the concrete companies will make the concrete with hot water.  After the concrete is poured, Kokosing crews will cover it with plastic and straw to retain the heat. 

*  If all goes as planned, concrete pouring will begin next Wednesday, February 10.  The concrete work, including pouring the shoulders, is expected to take 10 days. 

*  Even after the concrete driving surface has been poured and is cured, Kokosing crews will still have quite a few tasks to complete before the route is reopened to traffic.  Crews will have to stripe, erect the guardrail and seed and mulch along the roadway.  ODOT crews will have to re-erect the signs before the road is reopened.

*  ODOT and Kokosing officials agree the route will likely be reopened to traffic in early March.  However, adverse weather conditions could delay the project and the reopening of the roadway.
 
 
Wednesday, February 3
Kokosing crews will be finishing the underdrains today and will begin to put down the layer of stone that will serve as the base for the concrete driving surface.  According to ODOT Project Inspector Dave Walton, crews should be able to finish putting down the stone by this Friday if the weather stays good.  That should put crews in a good position to start pouring the concrete driving surface next week.

Kokosing and ODOT officials will meet on the project at 9:30 a.m. tomorrow for the weekly progress meeting.  Next week's plans to pour the concrete driving surface will most likely be a main focus of the meeting.  A press release will be issued tomorrow or Friday to update the public.  As usual, meeting highlights will be posted tomorrow to keep you site visitors up to date.  We should have some more photographs to post soon.
 
 
Tuesday, February 2
Kokosing crews are continuing to work on the underdrains today.  They haven't started putting down the layer of stone that will serve as the base for the concrete roadway.  Weather conditions were too wet today.  However, the weather is expected to improve tomorrow, so crews will likely start putting down the stone base tomorrow morning.

At this point, it still looks as if crews will be ready to start pouring the concrete driving surface February 10.  The relatively mild weather conditions have been extremely beneficial to the project.

 

November 1998:
State Route 32
in Jackson County closed due to underground mine voids! 

Project Location Map
Click on the image above to access a larger map detailing the location and the detour route.

Monthly Journals:
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998