item 401  Asphalt Concrete

401.01  Description

401.02  Mix Design and Quality Control

401.03  Materials

401.04  Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement

401.05  Mixing Plants

401.06  Weather Limitations

401.07  Notification

401.08  Asphalt Binder

401.09  Aggregate Preparation

401.10  Mixing

401.11  Hauling

401.12  Spreading Equipment

401.13  Rollers

401.14  Conditioning Existing Surface

401.15  Spreading, Finishing and Night Work

401.16  Compaction

401.17  Joints

401.18  Asphalt Binder Compatibility

401.19  Spreading and Surface Tolerances

401.20  Asphalt Binder Price Adjustment

401.21  Method of Measurement

401.22  Basis of Payment


401.01  Description.  This specification is applicable to all types of asphalt concrete pavements irrespective of gradation of aggregate, kind, and amount of asphalt binder, or pavement use.  Deviations from these general requirements are covered in the specific requirements for each type according to the appropriate contract item or items.

Work consists of one or more courses of asphalt concrete constructed on a prepared foundation.  The asphalt concrete consists of a mixture of uniformly graded aggregate and specified type and grade of asphalt binder.

Control all production processes to assure the Engineer that the mixture delivered to the paving site is uniform in composition, conforms to the specification requirements and that the placed mixture is free of any defect (ex.  segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s control at project completion.

The asphalt concrete pavement thickness shown on the plans or stated in the Proposal is for the exclusive use in calculating the weight required to be placed per unit of surface area.

401.02  Mix Design and Quality Control. Use an approved Job Mix Formula (JMF). The quality control and acceptance requirements of Item 403 apply unless otherwise specified.

If required to perform the mix design or quality control, provide a laboratory and personnel meeting the requirements of Supplement 1041 to perform mix design and quality control tests.

Calibrate asphalt content nuclear gauges according to Supplement 1043 using personnel with a minimum Level 2 rating according to Supplement 1041.  Mix and test the calibration verification sample with a Department employee present.

Provide and dispose of the solvent used for cleaning the asphalt content nuclear gauge pans.

401.03  Materials.  Furnish materials conforming to:

Asphalt binder

.... (asphalt concrete, 401.14, 401.15)..................... 702.01

Asphalt material (401.14, 401.18)

.................................................. 702.01, 702.04, or 702.13

Aggregates (base courses)........................................ 703.04

Aggregates (intermediate and

.... surface courses).................................................. 703.05

Mineral filler ........................................................... 703.07


Sample aggregate, asphalt binder, asphalt material, and mineral filler according to 106.01.

If 100 percent of coarse aggregate in an asphalt mix design is steel slag, the Contractor may include steel slag as a maximum of up to 50 percent of fine aggregate.  If a steel slag source causes bulking (expansion resulting in flushing or material loss) in asphalt concrete courses, the Laboratory will place limits on the amount of steel slag allowed in a mix design.  Bulking may occur when a large percentage of an asphalt mix design is steel slag aggregate.  Bulking may be shown through testing, such as ASTM D 4792, or through field failure such as, but not limited to, flushing on newer pavement or apparent over-asphalting in production.  The Department may require the steel slag processor at any time to perform additional testing to verify steel slag properties.  Potential pavement performance problems due to poor control of steel slag aggregate include bulking, poor gradation and specific gravity control resulting in highly variable void properties, excess soft pieces resulting in pock marks, flushing, etc.

Take prompt corrective action if mixture delivered to the paving site is not uniform in composition, does not conform to the specification requirements or is not free of any defect (ex.  segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s control as determined by the Engineer.  The Engineer will stop conditional acceptance of the asphalt concrete for failure to correct problems.

401.04  Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Pavement. 

  Provide reclaimed asphalt concrete pavement (RAP) per the following requirements when choosing to use it in a mix.   Failure to follow these requirements will result in a rejection of the Contractor QCP (403.03); restriction of any RAP use at the facility; and/or a change to Unconditional Acceptance at the facility.   

 The Contractor may use a blend of new materials in combination with RAP obtained from verifiable Department or Ohio Turnpike Commission projects.  If the RAP is not from the above sources or the source is unknown, process and blend the RAP into a single uniform stockpile, test according to Level 3 Mix Design requirements and obtain District approval for use. Obtain Laboratory  written approval for use of unusually large, old RAP stockpiles of unknown content and/or age.  Include approved methods in the QCP for ongoing processing and testing of these piles. Ensure no foreign or deleterious material (703.04, 703.05)  is present in RAP.

Ensure that the JMF falls within the quality, gradation and asphalt binder content limits of the required mix item. For Contractor designed mixes ensure the JMF submittal includes the percentages of RAP, virgin aggregates, and virgin asphalt binder required for the mix item. Report all RAP test results and an average in the JMF submittal.  Identify the RAP in the JMF submittal as to project origin and mix type(s).

Determine RAP properties and uniformity as follows.  Determine final RAP gradation and asphalt binder content on a minimum of four separate stockpile (or roadway for concurrent grinding) samples all agreeing within 0.4 percent for asphalt binder content and 5 percent passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve.  If fractionated RAP is used the gradation requirement for uniformity does not apply. 

Include RAP in a JMF submittal per table 401.04-1 unless specified differently in the applicable mix specification.  For mixes that will contain up to 10 percent RAP the JMF submittal is not required to include the RAP unless a virgin polymer asphalt binder is used. For JMFs having  polymer asphalt binder only submit at 0 or 10% RAP.  If greater than 20 percent RAP is used in a JMF submittal include an analysis of the recovered asphalt binder and blend per Level 3 Mix Design procedures to determine the grade of virgin asphalt binder to use. 

TABLE 401.04-1

Asphalt Mix Application

Percent RAP by Dry Weight of Mix


Surface Course

10 max

When a virgin polymer asphalt binder is used.

Surface Course

20 max

For virgin non-polymer asphalt binder in the JMF. 

Intermediate Course

35 max

Any mix type used as an intermediate course.

Base Course 301

50 max

The Laboratory will establish the asphalt binder content.

Base Course 302

40 (30) max

A lower limit of 30 percent will be required if poor production  mixing or coating is evident.


Always note on the daily quality control report how much RAP is actually being used.  Apply a tolerance of +/-5.0% on the amount of RAP used if needed for a quality control adjustment but do not exceed the limits of Table 401.04-1. If this adjustment is not adequate for maintaining control of the mix submit a new JMF for approval. 

Include in the QCP methods to be used to meet the following requirements:

  Provide enough space for meeting all RAP handling requirements at a hot mix facility.  Provide a clean, graded base for stockpiles that does not collect water.  Test blended RAP stockpiles to assure uniform gradation and asphalt binder content. Ensure uniform stockpile properties match the JMF submitted RAP properties unless the uniform stockpile will be processed into the asphalt plant using plant cold feed in line processing. 

If the uniform stockpile will be processed into the asphalt plant using plant cold feed in line processing determine the processed RAP properties for use in the mix design.  Record in the JMF submittal both the uniform stockpile and in line processed RAP properties.

If desired, use concurrent Department project RAP in a stream process in place of stockpiling and testing for uniformity but do so in the following manner.  Concurrent project RAP must be taken from one existing mix type on the concurrent project or two existing mix types if both mix types are taken at the same time in one pass of the milling machine.  Submit a new JMF for each existing mix type on the project (or each milling pass of two types) desired for use as concurrent project RAP.  Include in the QCP methods of validating RAP properties when using concurrent project RAP. If these requirements are not met blend and test for uniformity and apply the stockpile requirements of this specification. 

For surface courses process RAP to less than 0.75 inch (19 mm) and place a 0.75 inch (19 mm) screen on the cold feed.  For other courses place a 2-inch (50 mm) screen on the cold feed.  Ensure that the RAP is the proper size to allow for complete breakdown in the plant.  If mixing is incomplete, place a smaller screen on the cold feed. 

Maintain in the plant lab and control room an up to date and dated site map of all tested and untested RAP stockpiles. Give each stockpile a unique identification. Provide in the plant lab RAP properties for each uniform, blended stockpile cross referenced with its identification.  In addition, provide the date the stockpile processing was completed and the stockpile estimated size in tons.    The DET may require RAP pile staking for failure to maintain the above. Do not add to a stockpile once it is tested for uniformity.  Provide signage at all uniform stockpiles to inform haulers that uniform piles are not to be added to.

Stockpiles and processing methods are subject to inspection and approval by the DET at any time.  Rejection of stockpiles can occur for the presence of foreign or deleterious materials, lack of uniformity, incomplete mixing in the asphalt mixture, adding to piles, or moving RAP in a way not traceable thru the QCP records and methods.  The Laboratory will resolve disputes over acceptability of RAP.

 401.05  Mixing Plants.  The Department will approve mixing plants before preparation of the mixtures.  General requirements for asphalt concrete mixing plants are specified in Item 402.

Set the asphalt binder controls for the computerized plant at the virgin asphalt binder content of the JMF at all times unless change is authorized by the Laboratory.

401.06  Weather Limitations.  Place asphalt concrete only if the surface is dry and if weather conditions are such that proper handling, finishing, and compaction can be accomplished.  Never place asphalt concrete if the surface temperature is below the minimum established in Table 401.06-1.

Table 401.06-1

Course Thickness

Minimum Surface Temperature

3.0 inches (75 mm) and over

36 °F[1]

(2 °C[1])

1.5 to 2.9 inches (38 to 74 mm)

40 °F

(5 °C)

1.0 to 1.4 inches (25 to 37 mm)

50 °F

(10 °C)

Less than 1.0 inch (25 mm)

60 °F

(16 °C)

Variable Intermediate,
0 to 3.0 inches (0 to 75 mm)

40 °F

(5 °C)

[1]  Instead of 36 °F (2 °C), use a minimum air temperature of 40 °F (5 °C) if paving on an aggregate base or subgrade.


In addition to the above surface temperature requirements, do not place surface courses if the air temperature is less than 40 °F (5 °C).

For Type 1H asphalt concrete or any surface course with a polymer modified asphalt binder, ensure that the surface of the existing pavement is at least 50 °F (10 °C) and the air temperature is at least 50 °F (10 °C).

Do not place any Type 1H asphalt concrete or any surface course with a polymer modified asphalt binder after November 1, regardless of pavement or air temperature.

401.07  Notification.  Notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before starting paving on a project.  After starting paving, if paving operations are stopped for 1 week or more, notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before resuming paving on a project.

401.08  Asphalt Binder.  Heat the asphalt binder and deliver it to the mixer within the temperature range specified in Table 702.00-1.  Do not use asphalt binder while it is foaming.  Take samples using correct new containers from the binder line between the last piping ‘tee’ and inlet into the plant unless a different storage method requires a different sampling location.

401.09  Aggregate Preparation.  Feed aggregates in their proper proportions and at a rate to permit correct and uniform control of heating and drying.  Remove all aggregates in the plant that will produce a mix outside the temperature limits or that contain excessive moisture or expanding gases causing foaming in the mixture, and return them to the proper stockpiles.

401.10  Mixing.  Maintain the temperature of the mix at the plant within the range set by the Laboratory for the JMF.  The Engineer will determine the required temperature of the mixture on arrival at the project site based on the temperature range set for the mix design and heat losses in transit.

For batch plants, after all of the aggregate is in the mixer, add the asphalt binder in an evenly spread sheet over the full length of the mixer.  The mixing time is defined as the interval between the start of application of the asphalt binder and the opening of the mixer gate.  Discharge all asphalt binder required for one batch in not more than 30 seconds.  After the asphalt binder is added, the Laboratory will establish a minimum mixing time, which will not be less than 30 seconds.

401.11  Hauling.  Use trucks for hauling asphalt concrete that have tight, clean, smooth metal beds from which the entire quantity of mixture is discharged smoothly into the spreading equipment.

Before loading, apply a thin coating of an approved release agent to the inside surfaces of the truck bed to prevent adhesion of mixture to the bed surfaces.  The Laboratory maintains a list of approved release agents.  Do not use fuel oil for this purpose.  Drain truck beds before loading.

Provide a place off the project for cleaning trucks when hauling polymer modified asphalt binder mixes or when excessive sticking of material in truck beds occurs.  If the Contractor does not resolve excessive sticking of material in truck beds in a reasonable time and the sticking is in areas of the truck that would indicate excessive cooling of the mix (front corners, bottom, etc.) due to a long haul, the Engineer will require an insulated bed.  The Contractor may only make changes in policy regarding release agents for beds or other procedure changes for better mix handling at the discretion of the Laboratory.

Equip each truck with a securely fastened, waterproof cover of suitable material to adequately protect the mixture from wind and weather.  At the request of the Engineer, remove covers before dumping into the paver.

If transporting hot asphalt concrete at prevailing air temperatures below 50 °F (10 °C) or if the length of haul exceeds 20 miles (32 km), insulate all truck beds to maintain workable mix temperature, and ensure that all covers are fastened to exclude the wind.  Do not exceed a distance of 50 miles (80 km) from the asphalt concrete plant to the paving site except by specific permission of the Department.

401.12  Spreading Equipment.  Use self-contained spreading equipment of sufficient size, power, and stability to receive, distribute, and strike-off the asphalt concrete at rates and widths meeting the typical sections and other details shown on the plans.  Use spreading equipment that has automatic control systems that maintain the screed in a constant position relative to profile and cross-slope references.  Ensure control of the screed position is reasonably independent of irregularities in the underlying surface and of the spreader operation.  Equip asphalt spreading equipment to prevent the segregation of coarse aggregate from the remainder of the asphalt concrete when the material moves from the hopper to the screed.   Use means and methods approved by the asphalt spreader manufacturer consisting of but not limited to any combination of chain curtains, deflector plates, or other such devices.

For the following asphalt spreaders perform the listed modifications:

A. Equip Blaw-Knox asphalt spreaders with the Blaw-Knox Materials Management Kit (MMK) or an alternate equivalent kit.  If an alternate kit is used pro-vide documentation showing the Blaw Knox means and methods and that the al-ternate methods used are equivalent.

B.  Only use Cedar Rapids asphalt spreaders manufactured after 1988.

C.  Equip Caterpillar asphalt spreaders with deflector plates as identified in the Caterpillar December 2000 Service Magazine entitled “New Asphalt Deflector Kit {6630, 6631 or 6640}”.

Provide a letter to the Engineer identifying modified asphalt spreaders to be used and provide a certification statement and signature that the above modifications were implemented on the listed asphalt spreaders.

The Engineer will base final approval of spreading equipment on the demonstrated capability of the equipment to place the mixture to the required cross-section, profile and alignment in an acceptable, finished condition ready for compaction.

Where the use of standard full-scale spreading equipment is impractical due to the size or irregularity of the area to be paved, use specialized equipment or hand methods approved by the Engineer to spread the asphalt concrete.

401.13  Rollers.  Use only steel wheel and pneumatic tire types of rollers meeting the minimum requirements of the following tables.  Conform to manufacturer’s specifications  for all ballasting.

table 401.13-1  ROLLER CAPACITY

Roller Type

Maximum Capacity
square yards per hour (m2/hr)


700 (600)


700 (600)


15 per inch width (13 per 25 mm width)

Pneumatic Tire, Type 1

1000 (850)

Pneumatic Tire, Type 2

700 (600)

Vibratory, Vibrating Roll

15 per inch width (13 per 25 mm width)

Vibratory, Static Roll
(not vibrating)

3 per inch width (3 per 25 mm width)


table 401.13-2  STEEL WHEEL ROLLERS

Roller Type





Total weight, tons
(metric tons)



8 to 12

(7 to 11)

8 to 12

(7 to 11)


Compression rolls, pounds per inch width (kN/m), minimum











Type I


Tire size, minimum

9.00 ´ 20 in (229 ´ 508 mm)

Wheel load, minimum

5000 lb (2250 kg)

Average tire contact pressure, minimum

85 psi (590 kPa)

Type II


Tire size, minimum

7.50 ´ 15 in (191 ´ 381 mm)

Wheel load, minimum

2000 lb (900 kg)

Average tire contact pressure, minimum

55 psi (380 kPa)


For pneumatic tire rollers, use self-propelled, reversible units with vertical oscillation on all wheels on at least one axle.  Determine the tire inflation pressure necessary to meet the specified minimum contact area and contact pressure requirements.  Furnish the tire manufacturer’s charts or tabulations to the Engineer for verification of the required inflation pressure.  Check tire inflation pressure as the Engineer directs and maintain it within 5 pounds per square inch (35 kPa) of the required pressure.

Provide rolls and wheels with the necessary accessories to prevent adhesion of the mixture, and keep them properly moistened with water, water containing a detergent, or water containing an approved additive.  Do not use excess liquid.

401.14  Conditioning Existing Surface.  Clean the surface on which the asphalt concrete is to be placed, and keep it free of accumulations of materials that would, in the judgment of the Engineer, contaminate the mixture, prevent bonding, or interfere with spreading operations.  Where approved subgrade or pavement courses previously constructed under the Contract become loosened, rutted, or otherwise defective, correct the deficiency according to the contract item or items involved before the spreading of a subsequent pavement course.

If a quantity of asphalt concrete is specified for use in spot leveling or patching an existing pavement surface, spread and compact the material needed to effect the corrections as directed by the Engineer.

Paint contact surfaces of curbing, gutters, manholes, and other structures with a thin, uniform coating of asphalt material before placing the asphalt concrete against them.

If placing asphalt concrete against the vertical face of an existing pavement structure, clean the vertical face of foreign material and apply asphalt material that results in a coating of approximately 0.25 gallon per square yard (1 L/m2).

Before placing a surface course onto an intermediate course, apply a tack coat to the intermediate course according to 407.06.

In areas where the surface is required to be feathered to meet an adjoining surface, coat the existing surface uniformly with a thin coat of asphalt binder.

401.15  Spreading, Finishing and Night Work.  Spreading and Finishing. Spread the mixture at a rate calculated using the specified thickness and the compacted width of the pavement course being placed, and the weight-to-volume conversion factors established in 401.21.  Maintain the actual rate of spreading the mixture equal to the required calculated rate within the tolerance specified in 401.19.  For pavement courses specified for leveling an existing pavement surface, the actual rate of spreading the mixture may vary from the required calculated rate as approved by the Engineer to accomplish the intended purpose.

For intermediate courses, make the maximum compacted depth of any one layer 3 inches (75 mm).

Spread and finish the mixture using approved equipment or methods such that compaction can follow immediately.  Preheat screeds before placing any asphalt concrete.  Use side plates sufficient to contain the mixture laterally during spreading.  If paving in excess of the nominal paver width, use only a permanent extension or an adjustable extension with full auger extensions when matching a previously placed pavement course.  Use extensions that have the ability to heat.  The Contractor may use strike-off plates on adjacent berm areas.  Perform supplemental hand forming and tamping where irregularities develop and where placing the mixture by hand methods.

Take prompt corrective action if placed mixture is not free of any defect (ex.  segregation, tenderness, lack of mixture and texture uniformity, raveling, flushing, rutting, holes, debris etc.) within the Contractor’s control and as determined by the Engineer.  Remove and replace, or otherwise correct, any portion of the pavement course found to be defective in surface texture or composition before or after compaction in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer.  Coordinate the spreading operation with the rate of production and delivery of the mixture to attain uniform, continuous progress.  Avoid erratic spreader operation due to irregular contact with the hauling vehicle, surging in the feed and distribution of the mixture, or other cause.  Maintain sufficient control of the spreading equipment with regard to line and grade references so that the pavement course, when compacted as specified, is in reasonable conformance with the Contract Documents.

Do not displace or damage bridge deck waterproofing membranes during spreading operations on the membranes.

Do not allow traffic on the compacted mixture until it has cooled sufficiently to prevent glazing as determined by the Engineer.

After completion of the surface course, seal gutters with asphalt binder as directed by the Engineer.  Apply the material at a uniform width of approximately 4 inches (100 mm) and at a rate just sufficient to fill surface voids.

Night Work.  Do not start night work or carry on day work into night work without operating an adequate and approved lighting system.  Night work is defined as work performed from 30 minutes before sunset to 30 minutes after sunrise.

Operation of adequate lighting system consists of furnishing, installing, operating, maintaining, moving, and removing night time lighting to illuminate construction work areas for night work.  Obtain the Engineer’s approval of the lighting at the beginning of the project and before starting the paving operation by measuring the luminance.

Provide an illuminated zone around all operating machinery.  Provide an illuminated zone of at least 5 Foot-candles (55 lux) of lighting luminance in the immediate vicinity of pavers, rollers, grinding equipment, material transfer vehicles, etc., and at least 1 Foot-candle (10 lux) at 25 feet (7.6 m) from this equipment. Provide an illuminated zone of at least 5 Foot-candles (55 lux) of lighting luminance in the immediate vicinity of coring equipment and at least 1 Foot-candle (10 lux) at 10 feet (3m). Position the light sources so they don’t interfere with or impede traffic in any direction and do not cause glare for motorists or point onto adjacent properties.  Provide a photometer capable of measuring the level of luminance on each night project. Take luminance measurements at a height of 20 inches (500 millimeters) above the roadway.

Obtain the luminance level any time requested by the Engineer. Test the illumination levels on the site each time a change in lighting configuration is made.  Replace non-functioning lamps immediately. Check the luminaires aiming daily.  Clean the luminaires regularly. Correct any deficient lighting within one hour or the Engineer will terminate construction activities.

401.16  Compaction.  Immediately after spreading the asphalt concrete and adjusting any surface irregularities, compact the mixture uniformly using rollers conforming to 401.13.  Do not use a spreading rate that exceeds the total of the specified capacities of the rollers in use.  However, if compacting a mixture spread as an intermediate or pre-leveling course less than 1 inch (25 mm) thick, do not use a spreading rate that exceeds twice the total capacity of the rollers in use.

Coordinate the spreading of the mixture with the required roller coverage, considering the rate of cooling of the mixture as affected by lift thickness and environmental conditions.  Complete the required roller coverage during the period of time in which the temperature of the mixture is sufficient for the roller coverage to be effective in compacting the mixture.

Compact base mixtures using a combination of both steel and Type I pneumatic tire rollers; however, in small areas, compact these mixtures as approved by the Engineer using any of the rollers specified in 401.13.

Compact intermediate and surface mixtures using a three-wheel roller in the breakdown position (roller immediately behind the paver) of the roller train; however, in small areas, compact these mixtures as approved by the Engineer using any of the roller types specified in 401.13.

Compact variable depth courses using a combination of both steel and pneumatic tire rollers; however, in small areas, compact these mixtures as the Engineer approves using any of the roller types specified in 401.13.

For Type 1H asphalt concrete or mixes using a polymer modified asphalt binder, give a copy of the JMF approval letter containing the design compaction temperature to the Engineer before any mix is placed.  Ensure that the mix temperature immediately before rolling is not less than 290 °F (145 °C).  Pneumatic tire rollers are not recommended for polymer asphalt concrete because of excessive pick up.

Do not use vibratory rollers on courses with a thickness under 1 1/2 inches (38 mm).

If using vibratory rollers, supplement them with three-wheel or pneumatic tire rollers.

Unless otherwise directed, begin rolling at the sides and proceed longitudinally parallel to the centerline at a slow, uniform speed.  After each coverage or complete round trip, move the roller towards the crown of the road to begin its next pass, overlapping the previous pass by at least one-half the width of the previous pass.  On superelevated curves, begin rolling at the low side and progress toward the high side.  Where a longitudinal joint is being made, roll the joint then follow the applicable rolling procedure.

Continue rolling until full coverage of the course is complete and all roller marks are eliminated.  Take care to prevent displacement of the edgeline and grade.  Where displacement occurs, correct the area immediately in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer.

Along curbs, headers, walls, and in other areas not accessible to rollers, thoroughly compact the mixture with hot, hand tampers or with mechanical tampers.  On depressed areas, the Contractor may use trench rollers or rollers fitted with compression strips.

Replace mixture that becomes loose, broken, contaminated, or otherwise defective with fresh, hot mixture.  Compact it to match with the surrounding area.

401.17  Joints.  Place the asphalt concrete mixture as continuous as possible.  Set up joints at the proper height above the adjacent construction to receive maximum compaction.  Where the edge of the new surface has been significantly rounded by the action of traffic, trim it to a vertical face before placing the adjacent pavement.  On projects where traffic is allowed to cross the edge of the new pavement lane, complete the longitudinal joint of the adjacent lane or berm within 24 hours.

Form hot longitudinal joints using pavers operating in contiguous lanes, one just ahead of the other.  Maintain the distance between pavers in adjacent lanes such that it does not exceed the distance that a normal size load of mixture will cover.  Alternate loads of mixture between the pavers.  Do not allow rollers performing the initial rolling operation in one lane closer than 12 inches (0.3 m) to the longitudinal joint until the adjacent lane is placed.

Instead of hot joint construction using multiple pavers, the Contractor may use full width construction with a single unit paver.

Compact all cold longitudinal joints on intermediate and surface courses using a three-wheel roller.

For surface courses, form or cut all transverse construction joints to a vertical.

     Seal all cold longitudinal construction joints by coating the entire face of the cold joint with a certified 702.01 PG binder or 702.13 Rubberized Asphalt Emulsion to provide 100 percent coverage of the joint.   Overlap the joint edges by at least 1/2 inch (13 mm).  Seal all cold transverse construction joints with a certified 702.01 PG binder or 702.13 Rubberized Asphalt Emulsion to provide 100 percent coverage of the joint or with a certified 702.04 asphalt material applied at a rate of 0.25 gallon per square yard (1 L/m2).

    401.18  Asphalt Binder Compatibility.  If excess fat spots, regular random areas of flushing, or excess drain down occur on a project that are not attributable to over rolling, plant operation, or mix quality compared to the JMF, the Department will consider the asphalt binder incompatible.  The Department will reject any on-hand asphalt binder because of incompatibility.  The Department may use its discretion in determining if problem areas can be corrected, but if an unsafe condition exists, remove and replace the area in question.  Demonstrate to the Laboratory through reporting actual testing analysis the compatibility of another asphalt binder and that proper equipment is in place in order to be allowed to resume.

401.19  Spreading and Surface Tolerances.  If a uniform course is specified, make checks and adjustments to maintain the rate of spreading within a tolerance of ±5 percent of the required calculated weight per unit of area.

If a variable depth course is specified, place the mixture as shown on the plans.

If a longitudinal profile is specified by elevations on the plans, the longitudinal profile of the completed pavement surface do not allow a deviation from parallel with the specified profile by more than 7/8 inch in 50 feet (21 mm in 15 m).  Before placing the surface course, check the profile of the preceding course at 50-foot (15 m) intervals along the outside edge of each traffic lane and along any additional line described in superelevation tables, and submit a tabulation of the results to the Engineer for approval.  Perform corrective work necessary for compliance with the profile tolerance before placing the surface course.  The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to small incidental areas of pavement less than 500 feet (150 m) in length.

Do not vary the transverse slope of the surface of the completed course from the specified slope by more than 3/8 inch in 10 feet (10 mm in 3 m).

Do not vary the surface of each completed intermediate or surface course from the testing edge of a 10-foot (3 m) straightedge by more than 1/4 inch (6 mm).  Furnish straightedges and straightedges equipped with levels or other devices satisfactory to the Engineer.  The Engineer will check the surface course for variations in slope or surface.

Correct variations in excess of slope or surface tolerance by removing mixture to neat lines and replacing, or by surface grinding in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer.

401.20  Asphalt Binder Price Adjustment.  Any contract item specifying asphalt concrete is eligible for a price adjustment, if the Department’s asphalt binder index shows the price for asphalt binders has increased or decreased in excess of 5 percent and the adjustment is more than $100 for any individual item.

If the ratio of the placing index (PI) to the bidding index (BI) is greater than 1.05 or less than 0.95, the Department will adjust compensation the Contractor receives for work done each month under contract items specifying asphalt concrete.  The adjustment will apply to the price for asphalt binder used in those contract items according to the following formula:

For a price increase:       

For a price decrease:      



                       PA =  price adjustment

                          C =  BI ´ percent virgin asphalt binder / 100

                        PI =  placing index *

                         Q =  quantity of asphalt concrete in tons (metric tons)

                        BI =  bidding index *

*   Use the PG Binder grade for the asphalt binder used.


The PI is the average F.O.B. price for the PG Binder grade specified, as quoted by a majority of Ohio suppliers for the month the asphalt concrete is placed.  The Department will secure the prices on the first business day of each month and will post the PI for each PG Binder grade in the Office of Contracts.  The Department will use the Metric Placing Index if the project is in metric units; otherwise, the Department will use the English Placing Index.  Only the calculated average prices will be available.  If the price is not available from a majority of the Ohio suppliers, then the Director’s determination will be final.

The BI is equal to the PI for each PG Binder Grade for the month immediately before the month the project is bid.  The Department will use the Metric Placing Index if the project is in metric units; otherwise, the Department will use the English Placing Index.

The percent of virgin asphalt binder used to calculate C is determined from the approved JMF.

The quantity of asphalt concrete items (Q) is the authorized constructed quantity in tons (metric tons) placed in the month being considered.  If the contract item is in cubic yards (cubic meters), the Department will convert the volume into tons (metric tons) using the conversion factor established according to 401.21.

If contract items specifying asphalt concrete are placed beyond an approved Contract Completion Date and liquidated damages are applied for completion of the contracts, the Department will base price adjustments on either the PI for the last month before liquidated damages were applicable or the PI for the actual month of placing, whichever is less.

At a minimum, the Department will calculate and apply price adjustments at the end of each construction season and as soon as practical after the completion of the project.

401.21  Method of Measurement.  The Contractor is responsible for recording the net weight of each truckload of mixture to the nearest 100 pounds (50 kg) in triplicate on plant ticket forms approved by the Department.  If the pay quantities are established by platform scales, provide a tare weight for each truck at the beginning of each day’s operation and a minimum of every 4 hours of operation each day.  The Engineer may require additional tare weight measurements at any time.  The Engineer will have the right to monitor all weighing operations and may require reweighing trucks at any time or location. Correct any discrepancies immediately.  Continued non-compliance will result in the Department taking necessary and appropriate action, such as, but not limited to, assigning a Department ticket writer to the plant.  Send one copy of the plant ticket with each load delivered to the paver and present it to the Engineer.

The Engineer will convert the total of the weights recorded on the plant tickets representing mixture finished according to contract requirements to cubic yards (cubic meters) using a conversion factor established by the Laboratory.  The Laboratory will establish this conversion factor from the approved JMF.  However, if a mix design is not available, the Laboratory will use the conversion factors in Table 401.21.  If a uniform course is specified, the Department will not pay for a number of cubic yards (cubic meters) that exceeds the quantity calculated from plan lines and dimensions.

Table 401.21




Gravel and stone



Slag, less than 90 lb/yd3
(less than 1450 kg/m3)[1]



Slag, 90 to 100 lb/yd3
(1450 to 1600 kg/m3)[1]



Slag, more than 100 lb/yd3
(more than 1600 kg/m3)[1]



[1]  Based on average dry rodded weight at the Laboratory.


401.22  Basis of Payment.  The Department will pay for all work performed and measured as specified above according to the appropriate contract items for each type.

The cost of sealing the joints is included in the unit price bid for the asphalt concrete.

The Department will assess all costs against the Contractor that it incurs as a result of taking necessary and appropriate action due to the Contractor’s continued non-compliance.

If an unsafe condition exists, the Department will not pay for removing and replacing incompatible asphalt binder areas.